putting in gail's newest stuff

dp2041 [2004-04-21 02:49:16]
putting in gail's newest stuff
Filename
paper/ai2tv.bib
paper/ai2tv.tex
paper/ai2tvarch.eps
paper/ljil.eps
paper/refarch.eps
paper/sig-alternate.cls
paper/vidframes.eps
diff --git a/paper/ai2tv.bib b/paper/ai2tv.bib
index ecb1e85..13fea68 100644
--- a/paper/ai2tv.bib
+++ b/paper/ai2tv.bib
@@ -583,4 +583,39 @@
 @misc{VNC,
    title="VNC (Virtual Network Computing)",
    HOWPUBLISHED="\url{http://www.realvnc.com/}"
-}
\ No newline at end of file
+}
+
+@misc{AmericanSchool,
+title = "{Welcome To The American School}",
+howpublisher = "\url{http://http://www.americanschoolofcorr.com/}"
+}
+
+@inproceedings{UWyoming,
+title = "{Reviving a Print-based Correspondence Study Program In the
+Wake of Online Education}",
+author = "Jeff Miller and Chris Ditzler and Jeanette Lamb",
+booktitle = "American Association for Collegiate Independent Study:
+Distance Learning: Pioneering the Future",
+month = "October", year = "2003",
+note = "\url{http://www.aacis.org/conferences/aacis_2003/Jeffrey_Miller.ppt}"}
+
+@misc{UPhoenix,
+title = "{University of Phoenix: University for Working Adults"},
+howpublished = "\url{http://www.phoenix.edu/}"
+}
+
+@misc{Capella,
+title = "{Capella University: Education. Reborn.}",
+howpublished = "\url{http://www.capella.edu/gateway.aspx}"
+}
+
+
+@misc{NSFReport,
+author = "National Science Foundation, Division of Science
+Resources Statistics",
+title = "{The Application and Implications of Information Technologies
+in Postsecondary Distance Education: An Initial Bibliography}",
+number = "NSF 03-305",
+month = "December", year = "2002",
+howpublished = "\url{http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf03305/}"
+}
diff --git a/paper/ai2tv.tex b/paper/ai2tv.tex
index 9425117..73cb5ec 100644
--- a/paper/ai2tv.tex
+++ b/paper/ai2tv.tex
@@ -211,24 +211,31 @@ FACTORS}

 % -------------------------------------------------- %

-
 % tech report number CUCS-009-04
 \section{Introduction}

-Distance learning programs such as the Columbia Video Network have
-evolved from fedexing lecture video tapes to their off-campus students
-to instead streaming the videos over the Internet, which is also done
-by the Stanford Center for Professional Development.  The lectures are
-sometimes delivered ``live'', while in progress on campus, but
-frequently are post-processed and packaged for students to watch (and
-re-watch) at their convenience.  This introduces the possibility of
-forming ``study groups'' among off-campus students who view the
-lecture videos together, and pause the video for discussion when
-desired, thus approximating the pedagogically valuable discussions of
-on-campus students.  Although the instructor is probably not available
-for these discussions, this may be an advantage, since on-campus
-students are rarely afforded the opportunity to pause, rewind and
-fast-forward their instructors' lectures.
+% The wording was awkward here, so I pretend that Stanford also
+% once fedexed, even tho we don't know that.
+
+% Dan - you didn't insert any of the original cites into the new
+% Introduction, weren't any of them relevant?
+
+Distance learning programs such as the Columbia Video Network and the
+Stanford Center for Professional Development have evolved from
+fedexing lecture video tapes to their off-campus students to instead
+streaming the videos over the Internet.  The lectures might be
+delivered ``live'', while in progress on campus, but are frequently
+post-processed and packaged for students to watch (and re-watch) at
+their convenience.  This introduces the possibility of forming ``study
+groups'' among off-campus students who view the lecture videos
+together, and pause the video for discussion when desired, thus
+approximating the pedagogically valuable discussions of on-campus
+students.  Although the instructor is probably not available for these
+discussions, this may be an advantage, since on-campus students are
+rarely afforded the opportunity to pause, rewind and fast-forward
+their instructors' lectures.
+
+% should it be JPG or JPEG?

 However, what we call {\em collaborative video viewing} by multiple
 geographically dispersed users is not yet supported by conventional
@@ -238,9 +245,9 @@ relatively disadvantaged with respect to bandwidth (e.g., dial-up
 modems) and local computer resources (e.g., archaic graphics cards,
 small disks).  We have adopted technology (developed by others, Liu
 and Kender \cite{TIECHENG}) for ``semantically compressing'' MPEG2
-videos into sequences of still JPG images.  This technology
+videos into sequences of still JPEG images.  This technology
 automatically selects the most semantically meaningful frames to show
-for each time epoch, and can generate different sequences of JPG
+for each time epoch, and can generate different sequences of JPEG
 images for a range of different compression (bandwidth) levels.  This
 approach works very well for typical lecture videos, where it is
 important, for instance, to see what the instructor has written on the
@@ -257,6 +264,8 @@ available in local buffers (caches), it is desirable to take advantage
 of the then-idle network connection to prefetch future images at a
 higher quality level.

+% cite for NTP?
+
 We have developed an approach to achieving this, using three
 mechanisms working in tandem.  First, the software clocks of the video
 clients are synchronized using NTP.  This time is used for reference
@@ -303,57 +312,76 @@ course. We compare to related work, and then summarize our
 contributions.

 \section{Motivation and Background} \label{background}
-% - discuss other projects on multiple client synchronization
-The increasing popularity of online universities has prompted many
-universities to begin providing online certification tracks that use
-pre-taped on-campus lectures.  Traditionally, online courses are
-provided through a Web portal interface, such as those at the
-University of Phoenix or Capella University, which are designed for
-individual students with a self-motivated learning style.
-Contrastly, in many on-campus courses, students are encouraged to
-study in groups in order to better learn the material.  For off-campus
-students viewing the pre-taped lecture, this practice is difficult
-because of their separation by geographic distance.  Support of
-synchronous collaboration remains a major concern in courses where
-group work is encouraged \cite{WELLS}, yet there are few educational
-tools that allow synchronous collaboration across a group of online
-students \cite{BURGESS}.
-
-There are some available tools that will allow online collaboration,
-though they may not be geared specifically for educational purposes.
-Some of these tools use asynchronous forms of communication, such as
-bulletin boards and discussion groups.  Others tools, such as instant
-messaging, application and desktop sharing \cite{WEBEX, VNC}, and
-co-browsing \cite{CAPPS, LIEBERMAN, SIDLER} facilitate the
-communicative aspects of synchronous collaboration but are not
-designed specifically for educational purposes thus can be cumbersome
-when used as such.
+
+% - discuss other projects on multiple client synchronization
+% shouldn't that go in the related work section?
+
+Correspondence courses have been available to working adult and/or
+geographically remote learners for over a century, e.g., the American
+School in Illinois has offered high school courses since 1897
+\cite{AmericanSchool}, and the University of Wyoming began offering
+extension courses in 1892, launching a full-fledged college distance
+learning program in 1906 \cite{UWyoming}.  Correspondence courses have
+traditionally been designed for individual students with a
+self-motivated learning style, studying primarily from reading
+materials and possibly text ``lectures''.
+
+% would be good if a cite could be found for last sentence above
+
+An NSF Report \cite{NSFReport} discusses how technology, from radio to
+television, to audio and video cassettes, to audio and video
+conferencing, has affected distance education. These technologies have
+enabled universities to offer certification and degree tracks using
+live or pre-taped audio and/or video of regular on-campus classroom
+lectures.  The report states that the recent use of Internet
+Technologies, especially the Web, has ``allowed both synchronous and
+asynchronous communication among students and between faculty and
+students'' and has ``stimulated renewed interest in distance
+education''. It also mentions that ``stimulating interaction among
+students'' can help reduce dropout rates, which may be higher in
+distance education than in traditional courses. Finally, it cites some
+studies that ``suggest the Web is superior to earlier distance
+education technologies because it allows teachers to build
+collaborative and team-oriented communities rather than either the
+passive classes of the conventional academy or the individual study of
+traditional correspondence courses''.
+
+Today's equivalent of correspondence courses are often offered online
+through a Web portal interface, with some for-profit schools like
+University of Phoenix \cite{UPhoenix} and Capella University
+\cite{Capella} primarily online.  Tools such as instant messaging,
+application and desktop sharing \cite{WEBEX, VNC}, and co-browsing
+\cite{CAPPS, LIEBERMAN, SIDLER} facilitate the communicative aspects
+of synchronous collaboration but are not designed specifically for
+educational purposes.  Support for synchronous collaboration remains a
+major concern in courses where group work is encouraged \cite{WELLS},
+yet there are few educational tools that allow synchronous
+collaboration across a group of online students \cite{BURGESS}.
+However, it seems that Web-based video streaming should enable
+synchronous collaboration ``situated'' by collaborative lecture video
+viewing.
+
+% would be good to find a cite for the last sentence above

 % - ai2tv project goals
-$\mathrm{AI}^2$TV contributes to the area of synchronous collaboration
-support, and more specifically, to collaborative video sharing.  The
-work presented in this paper is a part of a larger effort to provide a
-collaborative virtual environment for distributed team study.  That
-project's goal is to provide support for the collaborative use of
-multimedia content relevant to the work carried out by a team of users
-involved in the same project, such as audio/video recordings of
-lectures, meetings, workshops and other informational and educational
-events.  In this paper, we focus on the aspect of video sharing for
-synchronous collaboration.
-
-Viewing video on the Internet usually requires relatively high
-bandwidth resources and lossy network connections can lead to lost
-video content.  For group review of lecture videos, the lost content
-may severely disrupt the progression of the group.  Furthermore, the
-differences in network and computing resources available to dispersed
-users in the same collaboration group can prevent some students from
-participating.  Collaborative video sharing poses a twofold problem:
-on the one hand, it is mandatory to keep all users synchronized with
-respect to the content they are supposed to see at any moment during
-play time; on the other hand, it is important to provide each
-individual user with a frame rate that is optimized with respect to
-the user's available resources, which may vary during the course of
-the video.
+
+Our $\mathrm{AI}^2$TV project aims to contribute to the area of
+synchronous collaboration support for distance education, specifically
+in the context of collaborative video viewing over the Internet.
+However, viewing video on the Internet usually requires relatively
+high bandwidth resources and lossy network connections can lead to
+lost video content.  This is particularly a problem for group review
+of lecture videos, if different members of the group miss different
+portions of the video or fall behind to different degrees due to
+extensive buffering.  Furthermore, the differences in network and
+computing resources available to dispersed users in the same
+collaboration group can prevent some students from participating.
+Collaborative video sharing poses a twofold problem: on the one hand,
+it is mandatory to keep all users synchronized with respect to the
+content they are supposed to see at any moment during play time; on
+the other hand, it is important to provide each individual user with a
+frame rate that is optimized with respect to the user's available
+resources, which may vary during the course of the video.

 One solution to the problem of balancing the group synchronization
 requirement with the optimization of individual viewing experiences is
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+++ b/paper/sig-alternate.cls
@@ -1,1369 +1,1369 @@
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-% "COMPATIBLE" WITH THE "ACM_PROC_ARTICLE-SP.CLS" V2.6SP
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-% See LINE NUMBER 252 for details.
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-% Gerry November 11th. 1999
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-%
-%
-% -- Start of block B -- METAFONT
-% +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
-% Next (default) block for those using Metafont
-% Gerry Murray 11/11/1999
-% *** THIS BLOCK FOR THOSE USING METAFONT *****
-% *********************************************
-\newfont{\secfnt}{ptmb at 12pt}
-\newfont{\secit}{ptmbi at 12pt}    %13 Jan 00 gkmt
-\newfont{\subsecfnt}{ptmri at 11pt}
-\newfont{\subsecit}{ptmbi at 11pt}  % 13 Jan 00 gkmt -- was ptmr changed to ptmbi gm 2/4/2000
-                         % because "normal" is italic, "italic" is Roman
-\newfont{\ttlfnt}{phvb at 18pt}
-\newfont{\ttlit}{phvbo at 18pt}    % GM 2/4/2000
-\newfont{\subttlfnt}{phvr at 14pt}
-\newfont{\subttlit}{phvro at 14pt} % GM 2/4/2000
-\newfont{\subttlbf}{phvb at 14pt}  % 13 Jan 00 gkmt
-\newfont{\aufnt}{phvr at 12pt}
-\newfont{\auit}{phvro at 12pt}     % GM 2/4/2000
-\newfont{\affaddr}{phvr at 10pt}
-\newfont{\affaddrit}{phvro at 10pt} % GM 2/4/2000
-\newfont{\eaddfnt}{phvr at 12pt}
-\newfont{\ixpt}{ptmr at 9pt}
-\newfont{\confname}{ptmri at 8pt}
-\newfont{\crnotice}{ptmr at 8pt}
-\newfont{\ninept}{ptmr at 9pt}
-% +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
-% -- End of block B --
-
-
-\def\email#1{{{\eaddfnt{\vskip 4pt#1}}}}
-
-\def\addauthorsection{\ifnum\originalaucount>3
-    \section{Additional Authors}\the\addauthors
-  \fi}
-
-\newcount\savesection
-\newcount\sectioncntr
-\global\sectioncntr=1
-
-\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
-
-\def\appendix{\par
-\section*{APPENDIX}
-\setcounter{section}{0}
- \setcounter{subsection}{0}
- \def\thesection{\Alph{section}} }
-
-\leftmargini 22.5pt
-\leftmarginii 19.8pt    % > \labelsep + width of '(m)'
-\leftmarginiii 16.8pt   % > \labelsep + width of 'vii.'
-\leftmarginiv 15.3pt    % > \labelsep + width of 'M.'
-\leftmarginv 9pt
-\leftmarginvi 9pt
-
-\leftmargin\leftmargini
-\labelsep 4.5pt
-\labelwidth\leftmargini\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
-
-\def\@listI{\leftmargin\leftmargini \parsep 3.6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt%
-\topsep 7.2pt plus 2pt minus 4pt%
-\itemsep 3.6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt}
-
-\let\@listi\@listI
-\@listi
-
-\def\@listii{\leftmargin\leftmarginii
-   \labelwidth\leftmarginii\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
-   \topsep 3.6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
-   \parsep 1.8pt plus 0.9pt minus 0.9pt
-   \itemsep \parsep}
-
-\def\@listiii{\leftmargin\leftmarginiii
-    \labelwidth\leftmarginiii\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
-    \topsep 1.8pt plus 0.9pt minus 0.9pt
-    \parsep \z@ \partopsep 1pt plus 0pt minus 1pt
-    \itemsep \topsep}
-
-\def\@listiv{\leftmargin\leftmarginiv
-     \labelwidth\leftmarginiv\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep}
-
-\def\@listv{\leftmargin\leftmarginv
-     \labelwidth\leftmarginv\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep}
-
-\def\@listvi{\leftmargin\leftmarginvi
-     \labelwidth\leftmarginvi\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep}
-
-\def\labelenumi{\theenumi.}
-\def\theenumi{\arabic{enumi}}
-
-\def\labelenumii{(\theenumii)}
-\def\theenumii{\alph{enumii}}
-\def\p@enumii{\theenumi}
-
-\def\labelenumiii{\theenumiii.}
-\def\theenumiii{\roman{enumiii}}
-\def\p@enumiii{\theenumi(\theenumii)}
-
-\def\labelenumiv{\theenumiv.}
-\def\theenumiv{\Alph{enumiv}}
-\def\p@enumiv{\p@enumiii\theenumiii}
-
-\def\labelitemi{$\bullet$}
-\def\labelitemii{\bf --}
-\def\labelitemiii{$\ast$}
-\def\labelitemiv{$\cdot$}
-
-\def\verse{\let\\=\@centercr
-  \list{}{\itemsep\z@ \itemindent -1.5em\listparindent \itemindent
-          \rightmargin\leftmargin\advance\leftmargin 1.5em}\item[]}
-\let\endverse\endlist
-
-\def\quotation{\list{}{\listparindent 1.5em
-    \itemindent\listparindent
-    \rightmargin\leftmargin \parsep 0pt plus 1pt}\item[]}
-\let\endquotation=\endlist
-
-\def\quote{\list{}{\rightmargin\leftmargin}\item[]}
-\let\endquote=\endlist
-
-\def\descriptionlabel#1{\hspace\labelsep \bf #1}
-\def\description{\list{}{\labelwidth\z@ \itemindent-\leftmargin
-       \let\makelabel\descriptionlabel}}
-
-\let\enddescription\endlist
-
-\def\theequation{\arabic{equation}}
-
-\arraycolsep 4.5pt   % Half the space between columns in an array environment.
-\tabcolsep 5.4pt    % Half the space between columns in a tabular environment.
-\arrayrulewidth .4pt % Width of rules in array and tabular environment.
-\doublerulesep 1.8pt % Space between adjacent rules in array or tabular env.
-
-\tabbingsep \labelsep   % Space used by the \' command.  (See LaTeX manual.)
-
-\skip\@mpfootins =\skip\footins
-
-\fboxsep =2.7pt      % Space left between box and text by \fbox and \framebox.
-\fboxrule =.4pt      % Width of rules in box made by \fbox and \framebox.
-
-\def\thepart{\Roman{part}} % Roman numeral part numbers.
-\def\thesection       {\arabic{section}}
-\def\thesubsection    {\thesection.\arabic{subsection}}
-%\def\thesubsubsection {\thesubsection.\arabic{subsubsection}} % GM 7/30/2002
-%\def\theparagraph     {\thesubsubsection.\arabic{paragraph}}  % GM 7/30/2002
-\def\thesubparagraph  {\theparagraph.\arabic{subparagraph}}
-
-\def\@pnumwidth{1.55em}
-\def\@tocrmarg {2.55em}
-\def\@dotsep{4.5}
-\setcounter{tocdepth}{3}
-
-\def\tableofcontents{\@latexerr{\tableofcontents: Tables of contents are not
-  allowed in the `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
-
-\def\l@part#1#2{\addpenalty{\@secpenalty}
-   \addvspace{2.25em plus 1pt}  % space above part line
-   \begingroup
-   \@tempdima 3em       % width of box holding part number, used by
-     \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@pnumwidth      %% \numberline
-     \parfillskip -\@pnumwidth
-     {\large \bf        % set line in \large boldface
-     \leavevmode        % TeX command to enter horizontal mode.
-     #1\hfil \hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}}\par
-     \nobreak           % Never break after part entry
-   \endgroup}
-
-\def\l@section#1#2{\addpenalty{\@secpenalty} % good place for page break
-   \addvspace{1.0em plus 1pt}   % space above toc entry
-   \@tempdima 1.5em             % width of box holding section number
-   \begingroup
-    \parindent  \z@ \rightskip \@pnumwidth
-     \parfillskip -\@pnumwidth
-     \bf                        % Boldface.
-     \leavevmode                % TeX command to enter horizontal mode.
-      \advance\leftskip\@tempdima %% added 5 Feb 88 to conform to
-      \hskip -\leftskip           %% 25 Jan 88 change to \numberline
-     #1\nobreak\hfil \nobreak\hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}\par
-   \endgroup}
-
-
-\def\l@subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
-\def\l@subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{3.8em}{3.2em}}
-\def\l@paragraph{\@dottedtocline{4}{7.0em}{4.1em}}
-\def\l@subparagraph{\@dottedtocline{5}{10em}{5em}}
-
-\def\listoffigures{\@latexerr{\listoffigures: Lists of figures are not
-  allowed in the `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
-
-\def\l@figure{\@dottedtocline{1}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
-
-\def\listoftables{\@latexerr{\listoftables: Lists of tables are not
-  allowed in the `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
-\let\l@table\l@figure
-
-\def\footnoterule{\kern-3\p@
-  \hrule width .4\columnwidth
-  \kern 2.6\p@}                 % The \hrule has default height of .4pt .
-% ------
-\long\def\@makefntext#1{\noindent
-%\hbox to .5em{\hss$^{\@thefnmark}$}#1}   % original
-\hbox to .5em{\hss\textsuperscript{\@thefnmark}}#1}  % C. Clifton / GM Oct. 2nd. 2002
-% -------
-
-\long\def\@maketntext#1{\noindent
-#1}
-
-\long\def\@maketitlenotetext#1#2{\noindent
-            \hbox to 1.8em{\hss$^{#1}$}#2}
-
-\setcounter{topnumber}{2}
-\def\topfraction{.7}
-\setcounter{bottomnumber}{1}
-\def\bottomfraction{.3}
-\setcounter{totalnumber}{3}
-\def\textfraction{.2}
-\def\floatpagefraction{.5}
-\setcounter{dbltopnumber}{2}
-\def\dbltopfraction{.7}
-\def\dblfloatpagefraction{.5}
-
-%
-\long\def\@makecaption#1#2{
-   \vskip \baselineskip
-   \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{\textbf{#1: #2}}
-   \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize % IF longer than one line:
-       \textbf{#1: #2}\par               %   THEN set as ordinary paragraph.
-     \else                      %   ELSE  center.
-       \hbox to\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}\par
-   \fi}
-
-%
-
-\long\def\@makecaption#1#2{
-   \vskip 10pt
-   \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{\textbf{#1: #2}}
-   \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize % IF longer than one line:
-       \textbf{#1: #2}\par                %   THEN set as ordinary paragraph.
-     \else                      %   ELSE  center.
-       \hbox to\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}
-   \fi}
-
-\@ifundefined{figure}{\newcounter {figure}} % this is for LaTeX2e
-
-\def\fps@figure{tbp}
-\def\ftype@figure{1}
-\def\ext@figure{lof}
-\def\fnum@figure{Figure \thefigure}
-\def\figure{\@float{figure}}
-\let\endfigure\end@float
-\@namedef{figure*}{\@dblfloat{figure}}
-\@namedef{endfigure*}{\end@dblfloat}
-
-\@ifundefined{table}{\newcounter {table}} % this is for LaTeX2e
-
-\def\fps@table{tbp}
-\def\ftype@table{2}
-\def\ext@table{lot}
-\def\fnum@table{Table \thetable}
-\def\table{\@float{table}}
-\let\endtable\end@float
-\@namedef{table*}{\@dblfloat{table}}
-\@namedef{endtable*}{\end@dblfloat}
-
-\newtoks\titleboxnotes
-\newcount\titleboxnoteflag
-
-\def\maketitle{\par
- \begingroup
-   \def\thefootnote{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
-   \def\@makefnmark{\hbox
-       to 0pt{$^{\@thefnmark}$\hss}}
-     \twocolumn[\@maketitle]
-\@thanks
- \endgroup
- \setcounter{footnote}{0}
- \let\maketitle\relax
- \let\@maketitle\relax
- \gdef\@thanks{}\gdef\@author{}\gdef\@title{}\gdef\@subtitle{}\let\thanks\relax
- \@copyrightspace}
-
-%% CHANGES ON NEXT LINES
-\newif\if@ll % to record which version of LaTeX is in use
-
-\expandafter\ifx\csname LaTeXe\endcsname\relax % LaTeX2.09 is used
-\else% LaTeX2e is used, so set ll to true
-\global\@lltrue
-\fi
-
-\if@ll
-  \NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}
-  \ProvidesClass{sig-alternate} [2002/02/10 - V1.6 - based on acmproc.cls V1.3 <Nov. 30 '99>]
-  \RequirePackage{latexsym}% QUERY: are these two really needed?
-  \let\dooptions\ProcessOptions
-\else
-  \let\dooptions\@options
-\fi
-%% END CHANGES
-
-\def\@height{height}
-\def\@width{width}
-\def\@minus{minus}
-\def\@plus{plus}
-\def\hb@xt@{\hbox to}
-\newif\if@faircopy
-\@faircopyfalse
-\def\ds@faircopy{\@faircopytrue}
-
-\def\ds@preprint{\@faircopyfalse}
-
-\@twosidetrue
-\@mparswitchtrue
-\def\ds@draft{\overfullrule 5\p@}
-%% CHANGE ON NEXT LINE
-\dooptions
-
-\lineskip \p@
-\normallineskip \p@
-\def\baselinestretch{1}
-\def\@ptsize{0} %needed for amssymbols.sty
-
-%% CHANGES ON NEXT LINES
-\if@ll% allow use of old-style font change commands in LaTeX2e
-\@maxdepth\maxdepth
-%
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\rm}{\ninept\rmfamily}{\mathrm}
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sf}{\normalfont\sffamily}{\mathsf}
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\tt}{\normalfont\ttfamily}{\mathtt}
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\bf}{\normalfont\bfseries}{\mathbf}
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\it}{\normalfont\itshape}{\mathit}
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sl}{\normalfont\slshape}{\@nomath\sl}
-\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sc}{\normalfont\scshape}{\@nomath\sc}
-\DeclareRobustCommand*{\cal}{\@fontswitch{\relax}{\mathcal}}
-\DeclareRobustCommand*{\mit}{\@fontswitch{\relax}{\mathnormal}}
-\fi
-%
-\if@ll
- \renewcommand{\rmdefault}{cmr}  % was 'ttm'
-% Note! I have also found 'mvr' to work ESPECIALLY well.
-% Gerry - October 1999
-% You may need to change your LV1times.fd file so that sc is
-% mapped to cmcsc - -for smallcaps -- that is if you decide
-% to change {cmr} to {times} above. (Not recommended)
-  \renewcommand{\@ptsize}{}
-  \renewcommand{\normalsize}{%
-    \@setfontsize\normalsize\@ixpt{10.5\p@}%\ninept%
-    \abovedisplayskip 6\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus\p@
-    \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
-    \abovedisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
-    \belowdisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
-    \let\@listi\@listI
-  }
-\else
-  \def\@normalsize{%changed next to 9 from 10
-    \@setsize\normalsize{9\p@}\ixpt\@ixpt
-   \abovedisplayskip 6\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus\p@
-    \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
-    \abovedisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
-    \belowdisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
-    \let\@listi\@listI
-  }%
-\fi
-\if@ll
-  \newcommand\scriptsize{\@setfontsize\scriptsize\@viipt{8\p@}}
-  \newcommand\tiny{\@setfontsize\tiny\@vpt{6\p@}}
-  \newcommand\large{\@setfontsize\large\@xiipt{14\p@}}
-  \newcommand\Large{\@setfontsize\Large\@xivpt{18\p@}}
-  \newcommand\LARGE{\@setfontsize\LARGE\@xviipt{20\p@}}
-  \newcommand\huge{\@setfontsize\huge\@xxpt{25\p@}}
-  \newcommand\Huge{\@setfontsize\Huge\@xxvpt{30\p@}}
-\else
-  \def\scriptsize{\@setsize\scriptsize{8\p@}\viipt\@viipt}
-  \def\tiny{\@setsize\tiny{6\p@}\vpt\@vpt}
-  \def\large{\@setsize\large{14\p@}\xiipt\@xiipt}
-  \def\Large{\@setsize\Large{18\p@}\xivpt\@xivpt}
-  \def\LARGE{\@setsize\LARGE{20\p@}\xviipt\@xviipt}
-  \def\huge{\@setsize\huge{25\p@}\xxpt\@xxpt}
-  \def\Huge{\@setsize\Huge{30\p@}\xxvpt\@xxvpt}
-\fi
-\normalsize
-
-% make aubox hsize/number of authors up to 3, less gutter
-% then showbox gutter showbox gutter showbox -- GKMT Aug 99
-\newbox\@acmtitlebox
-\def\@maketitle{\newpage
- \null
- \setbox\@acmtitlebox\vbox{%
-\baselineskip 20pt
-\vskip 2em                   % Vertical space above title.
-   \begin{center}
-    {\ttlfnt \@title\par}       % Title set in 18pt Helvetica (Arial) bold size.
-    \vskip 1.5em                % Vertical space after title.
-%This should be the subtitle.
-{\subttlfnt \the\subtitletext\par}\vskip 1.25em%\fi
-    {\baselineskip 16pt\aufnt   % each author set in \12 pt Arial, in a
-     \lineskip .5em             % tabular environment
-     \begin{tabular}[t]{c}\@author
-     \end{tabular}\par}
-    \vskip 1.5em               % Vertical space after author.
-   \end{center}}
- \dimen0=\ht\@acmtitlebox
- \advance\dimen0 by -12.75pc\relax % Increased space for title box -- KBT
- \unvbox\@acmtitlebox
- \ifdim\dimen0<0.0pt\relax\vskip-\dimen0\fi}
-
-
-\newcount\titlenotecount
-\global\titlenotecount=0
-\newtoks\tntoks
-\newtoks\tntokstwo
-\newtoks\tntoksthree
-\newtoks\tntoksfour
-\newtoks\tntoksfive
-
-\def\abstract{
-\ifnum\titlenotecount>0 % was =1
-    \insert\footins{%
-    \reset@font\footnotesize
-        \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
-        \splittopskip\footnotesep
-        \splitmaxdepth \dp\strutbox \floatingpenalty \@MM
-        \hsize\columnwidth \@parboxrestore
-        \protected@edef\@currentlabel{%
-        }%
-        \color@begingroup
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=1
-      \@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=2
-      \@maketntext{%
-      \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=3
-      \@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ddagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksthree\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=4
-      \@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ddagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksthree\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\S$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksfour\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=5
-      \@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ddagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksthree\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\S$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksfour\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\@maketntext{%
-         \raisebox{4pt}{$\P$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksfive\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
-\fi
-   \color@endgroup} %g}
-\fi
-\setcounter{footnote}{0}
-\section*{ABSTRACT}\normalsize%\ninept
-}
-
-\def\endabstract{\if@twocolumn\else\endquotation\fi}
-
-\def\keywords{\if@twocolumn
-\section*{Keywords}
-\else \small
-\quotation
-\fi}
-
-\def\terms{\if@twocolumn
-\section*{General Terms}
-\else \small
-\quotation
-\fi}
-
-% -- Classification needs to be a bit smart due to optionals - Gerry/Georgia November 2nd. 1999
-\newcount\catcount
-\global\catcount=1
-
-\def\category#1#2#3{%
-\ifnum\catcount=1
-\section*{Categories and Subject Descriptors}
-\advance\catcount by 1\else{\unskip; }\fi
-    \@ifnextchar [{\@category{#1}{#2}{#3}}{\@category{#1}{#2}{#3}[]}%
-}
-
-\def\@category#1#2#3[#4]{%
-    \begingroup
-        \let\and\relax
-            #1 [\textbf{#2}]%
-            \if!#4!%
-                \if!#3!\else : #3\fi
-            \else
-                :\space
-                \if!#3!\else #3\kern\z@---\hskip\z@\fi
-                \textit{#4}%
-            \fi
-    \endgroup
-}
-%
-
-%%% This section (written by KBT) handles the 1" box in the lower left
-%%% corner of the left column of the first page by creating a picture,
-%%% and inserting the predefined string at the bottom (with a negative
-%%% displacement to offset the space allocated for a non-existent
-%%% caption).
-%%%
-\newtoks\copyrightnotice
-\def\ftype@copyrightbox{8}
-\def\@copyrightspace{
-\@float{copyrightbox}[b]
-\begin{center}
-\setlength{\unitlength}{1pc}
-\begin{picture}(20,6) %Space for copyright notice
-\put(0,-0.95){\crnotice{\@toappear}}
-\end{picture}
-\end{center}
-\end@float}
-
-\def\@toappear{} % Default setting blank - commands below change this.
-\long\def\toappear#1{\def\@toappear{\parbox[b]{20pc}{\baselineskip 9pt#1}}}
-\def\toappearbox#1{\def\@toappear{\raisebox{5pt}{\framebox[20pc]{\parbox[b]{19pc}{#1}}}}}
-
-\newtoks\conf
-\newtoks\confinfo
-\def\conferenceinfo#1#2{\global\conf={#1}\global\confinfo{#2}}
-
-
-\def\marginpar{\@latexerr{The \marginpar command is not allowed in the
-  `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
-
-\mark{{}{}}     % Initializes TeX's marks
-
-\def\today{\ifcase\month\or
-  January\or February\or March\or April\or May\or June\or
-  July\or August\or September\or October\or November\or December\fi
-  \space\number\day, \number\year}
-
-\def\@begintheorem#1#2{%
-    \parskip 0pt % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
-    \trivlist
-    \item[%
-        \hskip 10\p@
-        \hskip \labelsep
-        {{\sc #1}\hskip 5\p@\relax#2.}%
-    ]
-    \it
-}
-\def\@opargbegintheorem#1#2#3{%
-    \parskip 0pt % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
-    \trivlist
-    \item[%
-        \hskip 10\p@
-        \hskip \labelsep
-        {\sc #1\ #2\             % This mod by Gerry to enumerate corollaries
-   \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{(#3)}  % and bracket the 'corollary title'
-        \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa>\z@ % and retain the correct numbering of e.g. theorems
-            \hskip 5\p@\relax    % if they occur 'around' said corollaries.
-            \box\@tempboxa       % Gerry - Nov. 1999.
-        \fi.}%
-    ]
-    \it
-}
-\newif\if@qeded
-\global\@qededfalse
-
-% -- original
-%\def\proof{%
-%  \vspace{-\parskip} % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
-%    \global\@qededfalse
-%    \@ifnextchar[{\@xproof}{\@proof}%
-%}
-% -- end of original
-
-% (JSS) Fix for vertical spacing bug - Gerry Murray July 30th. 2002
-\def\proof{%
-\vspace{-\lastskip}\vspace{-\parsep}\penalty-51%
-\global\@qededfalse
-\@ifnextchar[{\@xproof}{\@proof}%
-}
-
-\def\endproof{%
-    \if@qeded\else\qed\fi
-    \endtrivlist
-}
-\def\@proof{%
-    \trivlist
-    \item[%
-        \hskip 10\p@
-        \hskip \labelsep
-        {\sc Proof.}%
-    ]
-    \ignorespaces
-}
-\def\@xproof[#1]{%
-    \trivlist
-    \item[\hskip 10\p@\hskip \labelsep{\sc Proof #1.}]%
-    \ignorespaces
-}
-\def\qed{%
-    \unskip
-    \kern 10\p@
-    \begingroup
-        \unitlength\p@
-        \linethickness{.4\p@}%
-        \framebox(6,6){}%
-    \endgroup
-    \global\@qededtrue
-}
-
-\def\newdef#1#2{%
-    \expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
-        {\@definecounter{#1}%
-         \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\@thmcounter{#1}}%
-         \global\@namedef{#1}{\@defthm{#1}{#2}}%
-         \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}%
-    }%
-}
-\def\@defthm#1#2{%
-    \refstepcounter{#1}%
-    \@ifnextchar[{\@ydefthm{#1}{#2}}{\@xdefthm{#1}{#2}}%
-}
-\def\@xdefthm#1#2{%
-    \@begindef{#2}{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
-    \ignorespaces
-}
-\def\@ydefthm#1#2[#3]{%
-    \trivlist
-    \item[%
-        \hskip 10\p@
-        \hskip \labelsep
-        {\it #2%
-         \savebox\@tempboxa{#3}%
-         \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa>\z@
-            \ \box\@tempboxa
-         \fi.%
-        }]%
-    \ignorespaces
-}
-\def\@begindef#1#2{%
-    \trivlist
-    \item[%
-        \hskip 10\p@
-        \hskip \labelsep
-        {\it #1\ \rm #2.}%
-    ]%
-}
-\def\theequation{\arabic{equation}}
-
-\newcounter{part}
-\newcounter{section}
-\newcounter{subsection}[section]
-\newcounter{subsubsection}[subsection]
-\newcounter{paragraph}[subsubsection]
-\def\thepart{\Roman{part}}
-\def\thesection{\arabic{section}}
-\def\thesubsection{\thesection.\arabic{subsection}}
-\def\thesubsubsection{\thesubsection.\arabic{subsubsection}} %removed \subsecfnt 29 July 2002 gkmt
-\def\theparagraph{\thesubsubsection.\arabic{paragraph}} %removed \subsecfnt 29 July 2002 gkmt
-\newif\if@uchead
-\@ucheadfalse
-
-%% CHANGES: NEW NOTE
-%% NOTE: OK to use old-style font commands below, since they were
-%% suitably redefined for LaTeX2e
-%% END CHANGES
-\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
-\def\part{%
-    \@startsection{part}{9}{\z@}{-10\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -2\p@}
-        {4\p@}{\normalsize\@ucheadtrue}%
-}
-\def\section{%
-    \@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}{-10\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -2\p@}% GM
-    {4\p@}{\baselineskip 14pt\secfnt\@ucheadtrue}%
-}
-
-\def\subsection{%
-    \@startsection{subsection}{2}{\z@}{-8\p@ \@plus -2\p@ \@minus -\p@}
-    {4\p@}{\secfnt}%
-}
-\def\subsubsection{%
-    \@startsection{subsubsection}{3}{\z@}{-8\p@ \@plus -2\p@ \@minus -\p@}%
-    {4\p@}{\subsecfnt}%
-}
-\def\paragraph{%
-    \vskip 12pt\@startsection{paragraph}{3}{\z@}{6\p@ \@plus \p@}%
-    {-5\p@}{\subsecfnt}%
-}
-\let\@period=.
-\def\@startsection#1#2#3#4#5#6{%
-        \if@noskipsec  %gkmt, 11 aug 99
-        \global\let\@period\@empty
-        \leavevmode
-        \global\let\@period.%
-    \fi
-      \par %
-    \@tempskipa #4\relax
-    \@afterindenttrue
-    \ifdim \@tempskipa <\z@
-        \@tempskipa -\@tempskipa
-        \@afterindentfalse
-    \fi
-    \if@nobreak
-    \everypar{}%
-    \else
-        \addpenalty\@secpenalty
-        \addvspace\@tempskipa
-    \fi
-\parskip=0pt % GM July 2000 (non numbered) section heads
-    \@ifstar
-        {\@ssect{#3}{#4}{#5}{#6}}
-        {\@dblarg{\@sect{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}{#5}{#6}}}%
-}
-\def\@sect#1#2#3#4#5#6[#7]#8{%
-    \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth
-        \let\@svsec\@empty
-    \else
-        \refstepcounter{#1}%
-        \edef\@svsec{%
-            \begingroup
-                %\ifnum#2>2 \noexpand\rm \fi % changed to next 29 July 2002 gkmt
-			\ifnum#2>2 \noexpand#6 \fi
-                \csname the#1\endcsname
-            \endgroup
-            \ifnum #2=1\relax .\fi
-            \hskip 1em
-        }%
-    \fi
-    \@tempskipa #5\relax
-    \ifdim \@tempskipa>\z@
-        \begingroup
-            #6\relax
-            \@hangfrom{\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
-            \begingroup
-                \interlinepenalty \@M
-                \if@uchead
-                    \uppercase{#8}%
-                \else
-                    #8%
-                \fi
-                \par
-            \endgroup
-        \endgroup
-        \csname #1mark\endcsname{#7}%
-        \vskip -12pt  %gkmt, 11 aug 99 and GM July 2000 (was -14) - numbered section head spacing
-\addcontentsline{toc}{#1}{%
-            \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth \else
-                \protect\numberline{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
-            \fi
-            #7%
-        }%
-    \else
-        \def\@svsechd{%
-            #6%
-            \hskip #3\relax
-            \@svsec
-            \if@uchead
-                \uppercase{#8}%
-            \else
-                #8%
-            \fi
-            \csname #1mark\endcsname{#7}%
-            \addcontentsline{toc}{#1}{%
-                \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth \else
-                    \protect\numberline{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
-                \fi
-                #7%
-            }%
-        }%
-    \fi
-    \@xsect{#5}\hskip 1pt
-    \par
-}
-\def\@xsect#1{%
-    \@tempskipa #1\relax
-    \ifdim \@tempskipa>\z@
-        \par
-        \nobreak
-        \vskip \@tempskipa
-        \@afterheading
-    \else
-        \global\@nobreakfalse
-        \global\@noskipsectrue
-        \everypar{%
-            \if@noskipsec
-                \global\@noskipsecfalse
-                \clubpenalty\@M
-                \hskip -\parindent
-                \begingroup
-                    \@svsechd
-                    \@period
-                \endgroup
-                \unskip
-                \@tempskipa #1\relax
-                \hskip -\@tempskipa
-            \else
-                \clubpenalty \@clubpenalty
-                \everypar{}%
-            \fi
-        }%
-    \fi
-    \ignorespaces
-}
-\def\@trivlist{%
-    \@topsepadd\topsep
-    \if@noskipsec
-        \global\let\@period\@empty
-        \leavevmode
-        \global\let\@period.%
-    \fi
-    \ifvmode
-        \advance\@topsepadd\partopsep
-    \else
-        \unskip
-        \par
-    \fi
-    \if@inlabel
-        \@noparitemtrue
-        \@noparlisttrue
-    \else
-        \@noparlistfalse
-        \@topsep\@topsepadd
-    \fi
-    \advance\@topsep \parskip
-    \leftskip\z@skip
-    \rightskip\@rightskip
-    \parfillskip\@flushglue
-    \@setpar{\if@newlist\else{\@@par}\fi}
-    \global\@newlisttrue
-    \@outerparskip\parskip
-}
-
-%%% Actually, 'abbrev' works just fine as the default
-%%% Bibliography style.
-
-\typeout{Using 'Abbrev' bibliography style}
-\newcommand\bibyear[2]{%
-    \unskip\quad\ignorespaces#1\unskip
-    \if#2..\quad \else \quad#2 \fi
-}
-\newcommand{\bibemph}[1]{{\em#1}}
-\newcommand{\bibemphic}[1]{{\em#1\/}}
-\newcommand{\bibsc}[1]{{\sc#1}}
-\def\@normalcite{%
-    \def\@cite##1##2{[##1\if@tempswa , ##2\fi]}%
-}
-\def\@citeNB{%
-    \def\@cite##1##2{##1\if@tempswa , ##2\fi}%
-}
-\def\@citeRB{%
-    \def\@cite##1##2{##1\if@tempswa , ##2\fi]}%
-}
-\def\start@cite#1#2{%
-    \edef\citeauthoryear##1##2##3{%
-        ###1%
-        \ifnum#2=\z@ \else\ ###2\fi
-    }%
-    \ifnum#1=\thr@@
-        \let\@@cite\@citeyear
-    \else
-        \let\@@cite\@citenormal
-    \fi
-    \@ifstar{\@citeNB\@@cite}{\@normalcite\@@cite}%
-}
-\def\cite{\start@cite23}
-\def\citeNP{\cite*}
-\def\citeA{\start@cite10}
-\def\citeANP{\citeA*}
-\def\shortcite{\start@cite23}
-\def\shortciteNP{\shortcite*}
-\def\shortciteA{\start@cite20}
-\def\shortciteANP{\shortciteA*}
-\def\citeyear{\start@cite30}
-\def\citeyearNP{\citeyear*}
-\def\citeN{%
-    \@citeRB
-    \def\citeauthoryear##1##2##3{##1\ [##3%
-        \def\reserved@a{##1}%
-        \def\citeauthoryear####1####2####3{%
-            \def\reserved@b{####1}%
-            \ifx\reserved@a\reserved@b
-                ####3%
-            \else
-                \errmessage{Package acmart Error: author mismatch
-                         in \string\citeN^^J^^J%
-                    See the acmart package documentation for explanation}%
-            \fi
-        }%
-    }%
-    \@ifstar\@citeyear\@citeyear
-}
-\def\shortciteN{%
-    \@citeRB
-    \def\citeauthoryear##1##2##3{##2\ [##3%
-        \def\reserved@a{##2}%
-        \def\citeauthoryear####1####2####3{%
-            \def\reserved@b{####2}%
-            \ifx\reserved@a\reserved@b
-                ####3%
-            \else
-                \errmessage{Package acmart Error: author mismatch
-                         in \string\shortciteN^^J^^J%
-                    See the acmart package documentation for explanation}%
-            \fi
-        }%
-    }%
-    \@ifstar\@citeyear\@citeyear  % GM July 2000
-}
-\def\@citenormal{%
-    \@ifnextchar [{\@tempswatrue\@citex;}
-                  {\@tempswafalse\@citex,[]}% % GM July 2000
-}
-\def\@citeyear{%
-    \@ifnextchar [{\@tempswatrue\@citex,}%
-                  {\@tempswafalse\@citex,[]}%
-}
-\def\@citex#1[#2]#3{%
-    \let\@citea\@empty
-    \@cite{%
-        \@for\@citeb:=#3\do{%
-            \@citea
-            \def\@citea{#1 }%
-            \edef\@citeb{\expandafter\@iden\@citeb}%
-            \if@filesw
-                \immediate\write\@auxout{\string\citation{\@citeb}}%
-            \fi
-            \@ifundefined{b@\@citeb}{%
-                {\bf ?}%
-                \@warning{%
-                    Citation `\@citeb' on page \thepage\space undefined%
-                }%
-            }%
-            {\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname}%
-        }%
-    }{#2}%
-}
-\let\@biblabel\@gobble
-\newdimen\bibindent
-\setcounter{enumi}{1}
-\bibindent=0em
-\def\thebibliography#1{%
-\ifnum\addauflag=0\addauthorsection\global\addauflag=1\fi
-    \section{%
-       {REFERENCES}
-         \vskip -9pt  % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
-        \@mkboth{{\refname}}{{\refname}}%
-    }%
-    \list{[\arabic{enumi}]}{%
-        \settowidth\labelwidth{[#1]}%
-        \leftmargin\labelwidth
-        \advance\leftmargin\labelsep
-        \advance\leftmargin\bibindent
-        \parsep=0pt\itemsep=1pt % GM July 2000
-        \itemindent -\bibindent
-        \listparindent \itemindent
-        \usecounter{enumi}
-    }%
-    \let\newblock\@empty
-    \raggedright % GM July 2000
-    \sloppy
-    \sfcode`\.=1000\relax
-}
-
-
-\gdef\balancecolumns
-{\vfill\eject
-\global\@colht=\textheight
-\global\ht\@cclv=\textheight
-}
-
-\newcount\colcntr
-\global\colcntr=0
-\newbox\savebox
-
-\gdef \@makecol {%
-\global\advance\colcntr by 1
-\ifnum\colcntr>2 \global\colcntr=1\fi
-   \ifvoid\footins
-     \setbox\@outputbox \box\@cclv
-   \else
-     \setbox\@outputbox \vbox{%
-\boxmaxdepth \@maxdepth
-       \@tempdima\dp\@cclv
-       \unvbox \@cclv
-       \vskip-\@tempdima
-       \vskip \skip\footins
-       \color@begingroup
-         \normalcolor
-         \footnoterule
-         \unvbox \footins
-       \color@endgroup
-       }%
-   \fi
-   \xdef\@freelist{\@freelist\@midlist}%
-   \global \let \@midlist \@empty
-   \@combinefloats
-   \ifvbox\@kludgeins
-     \@makespecialcolbox
-   \else
-     \setbox\@outputbox \vbox to\@colht {%
-\@texttop
-       \dimen@ \dp\@outputbox
-       \unvbox \@outputbox
-   \vskip -\dimen@
-       \@textbottom
-       }%
-   \fi
-   \global \maxdepth \@maxdepth
-}
-\def\titlenote{\@ifnextchar[\@xtitlenote{\stepcounter\@mpfn
-\global\advance\titlenotecount by 1
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=1
-    \raisebox{9pt}{$\ast$}
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=2
-    \raisebox{9pt}{$\dagger$}
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=3
-    \raisebox{9pt}{$\ddagger$}
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=4
-\raisebox{9pt}{$\S$}
-\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=5
-\raisebox{9pt}{$\P$}
-\fi
-         \@titlenotetext
-}}
-
-\long\def\@titlenotetext#1{\insert\footins{%
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=1\global\tntoks={#1}\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=2\global\tntokstwo={#1}\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=3\global\tntoksthree={#1}\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=4\global\tntoksfour={#1}\fi
-\ifnum\titlenotecount=5\global\tntoksfive={#1}\fi
-    \reset@font\footnotesize
-    \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
-    \splittopskip\footnotesep
-    \splitmaxdepth \dp\strutbox \floatingpenalty \@MM
-    \hsize\columnwidth \@parboxrestore
-    \protected@edef\@currentlabel{%
-    }%
-    \color@begingroup
-   \color@endgroup}}
-
-%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
-\ps@plain
-\baselineskip=11pt
-\let\thepage\relax % For NO page numbers - GM Nov. 30th. 1999 and July 2000
-\def\setpagenumber#1{\global\setcounter{page}{#1}}
-%\pagenumbering{arabic}  % Arabic page numbers GM July 2000
-\twocolumn             % Double column.
-\flushbottom           % Even bottom -- alas, does not balance columns at end of document
-\pagestyle{plain}
-
-% Need Copyright Year and Copyright Data to be user definable (in .tex file).
-% Gerry Nov. 30th. 1999
-\newtoks\copyrtyr
-\newtoks\acmcopyr
-\newtoks\boilerplate
-\global\acmcopyr={X-XXXXX-XX-X/XX/XX}  % Default - 5/11/2001 *** Gerry
-\global\copyrtyr={200X}                % Default - 3/3/2003 *** Gerry
-\def\CopyrightYear#1{\global\copyrtyr{#1}}
-\def\crdata#1{\global\acmcopyr{#1}}
-\def\permission#1{\global\boilerplate{#1}}
-%
-\global\boilerplate={Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.  To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.}
-\newtoks\copyrightetc
-\global\copyrightetc{Copyright \the\copyrtyr\ ACM \the\acmcopyr\ ...\$5.00}
-
-\toappear{\the\boilerplate\par
-{\confname{\the\conf}} \the\confinfo\par \the\copyrightetc.}
-%
-%% End of sig-alternate.cls -- V1.6 - 10/02/2002 --
-%% Gerry Murray -- Wednesday October 2nd. 2002
+% SIG-ALTERNATE.CLS - VERSION 1.6
+% "COMPATIBLE" WITH THE "ACM_PROC_ARTICLE-SP.CLS" V2.6SP
+% Gerald Murray October 2nd. 2002
+%
+% ---- Start of 'updates'  ----
+%
+% Allowance made to switch default fonts between those systems using
+% METAFONT and those using 'Type 1' or 'Truetype' fonts.
+% See LINE NUMBER 252 for details.
+% Also provided for enumerated/annotated Corollaries 'surrounded' by
+% enumerated Theorems (line 841).
+% Gerry November 11th. 1999
+%
+% Made the Permission Statement / Conference Info / Copyright Info
+% 'user definable' in the source .tex file OR automatic if
+% not specified.
+%
+% Georgia fixed bug in sub-sub-section numbering in paragraphs (July 29th. 2002)
+% JS/GM fix to vertical spacing before Proofs (July 30th. 2002)
+%
+% Footnotes inside table cells using \minipage (Oct. 2002)
+%
+% ---- End of 'updates' ----
+%
+\def\fileversion{v1.6}          % for ACM's tracking purposes
+\def\filedate{October 2, 2002}    % Gerry Murray's tracking data
+\def\docdate {Wednesday 2nd. October 2002} % Gerry Murray (with deltas to doc}
+\usepackage{epsfig}
+\usepackage{amssymb}
+\usepackage{amsmath}
+\usepackage{amsfonts}
+%
+% SIG-ALTERNATE DOCUMENT STYLE
+% G.K.M. Tobin August-October 1999
+%    adapted from ARTICLE document style by Ken Traub, Olin Shivers
+%    also using elements of esub2acm.cls
+% HEAVILY MODIFIED, SUBSEQUENTLY, BY GERRY MURRAY 2000
+% ARTICLE DOCUMENT STYLE -- Released 16 March 1988
+%    for LaTeX version 2.09
+% Copyright (C) 1988 by Leslie Lamport
+%
+%
+%%% sig-alternate.cls is an 'ALTERNATE' document style for producing
+%%% two-column camera-ready pages for ACM conferences.
+%%% THIS FILE DOES NOT STRICTLY ADHERE TO THE SIGS (BOARD-ENDORSED)
+%%% PROCEEDINGS STYLE. It has been designed to produce a 'tighter'
+%%% paper in response to concerns over page budgets.
+%%% The main features of this style are:
+%%%
+%%% 1)  Two columns.
+%%% 2)  Side and top margins of 4.5pc, bottom margin of 6pc, column gutter of
+%%%     2pc, hence columns are 20pc wide and 55.5pc tall.  (6pc =3D 1in, approx)
+%%% 3)  First page has title information, and an extra 6pc of space at the
+%%%     bottom of the first column for the ACM copyright notice.
+%%% 4)  Text is 9pt on 10pt baselines; titles (except main) are 9pt bold.
+%%%
+%%%
+%%% There are a few restrictions you must observe:
+%%%
+%%% 1)  You cannot change the font size; ACM wants you to use 9pt.
+%%% 3)  You must start your paper with the \maketitle command.  Prior to the
+%%%     \maketitle you must have \title and \author commands.  If you have a
+%%%     \date command it will be ignored; no date appears on the paper, since
+%%%     the proceedings will have a date on the front cover.
+%%% 4)  Marginal paragraphs, tables of contents, lists of figures and tables,
+%%%     and page headings are all forbidden.
+%%% 5)  The `figure' environment will produce a figure one column wide; if you
+%%%     want one that is two columns wide, use `figure*'.
+%%%
+%
+%%% Copyright Space:
+%%% This style automatically reserves 1" blank space at the bottom of page 1/
+%%% column 1.  This space can optionally be filled with some text using the
+%%% \toappear{...} command.  If used, this command must be BEFORE the \maketitle
+%%% command.  If this command is defined AND [preprint] is on, then the
+%%% space is filled with the {...} text (at the bottom); otherwise, it is
+%%% blank.  If you use \toappearbox{...} instead of \toappear{...} then a
+%%% box will be drawn around the text (if [preprint] is on).
+%%%
+%%% A typical usage looks like this:
+%%%     \toappear{To appear in the Ninth AES Conference on Medievil Lithuanian
+%%%               Embalming Technique, June 1991, Alfaretta, Georgia.}
+%%% This will be included in the preprint, and left out of the conference
+%%% version.
+%%%
+%%% WARNING:
+%%% Some dvi-ps converters heuristically allow chars to drift from their
+%%% true positions a few pixels. This may be noticeable with the 9pt sans-serif
+%%% bold font used for section headers.
+%%% You may turn this hackery off via the -e option:
+%%%     dvips -e 0 foo.dvi >foo.ps
+%%%
+\typeout{Document Class 'sig-alternate' <2nd. October '02>.  Modified by G.K.M. Tobin/Gerry Murray}
+\typeout{Based in part upon document Style `acmconf' <22 May 89>. Hacked 4/91 by}
+\typeout{shivers@cs.cmu.edu, 4/93 by theobald@cs.mcgill.ca}
+\typeout{Excerpts were taken from (Journal Style) 'esub2acm.cls'.}
+\typeout{****** Bugs/comments/suggestions/technicalities to Gerry Murray -- murray@hq.acm.org ******}
+\typeout{Questions on the style, SIGS policies, etc. to Adrienne Griscti griscti@acm.org}
+\oddsidemargin 4.5pc
+\evensidemargin 4.5pc
+\advance\oddsidemargin by -1in  % Correct for LaTeX gratuitousness
+\advance\evensidemargin by -1in % Correct for LaTeX gratuitousness
+\marginparwidth 0pt             % Margin pars are not allowed.
+\marginparsep 11pt              % Horizontal space between outer margin and
+                                % marginal note
+
+                                % Top of page:
+% dp2041
+% \topmargin 4.5pc                % Nominal distance from top of page to top of
+\topmargin 9pc                % Nominal distance from top of page to top of
+                                % box containing running head.
+\advance\topmargin by -1in      % Correct for LaTeX gratuitousness
+\headheight 0pt                 % Height of box containing running head.
+\headsep 0pt                    % Space between running head and text.
+                                % Bottom of page:
+\footskip 30pt                  % Distance from baseline of box containing foot
+                                % to baseline of last line of text.
+\@ifundefined{footheight}{\newdimen\footheight}{}% this is for LaTeX2e
+\footheight 12pt                % Height of box containing running foot.
+
+%% Must redefine the top margin so there's room for headers and
+%% page numbers if you are using the preprint option. Footers
+%% are OK as is. Olin.
+\advance\topmargin by -37pt     % Leave 37pt above text for headers
+\headheight 12pt                % Height of box containing running head.
+\headsep 25pt                   % Space between running head and text.
+
+\textheight 666pt       % 9 1/4 column height
+\textwidth 42pc         % Width of text line.
+                        % For two-column mode:
+\columnsep 2pc          %    Space between columns
+\columnseprule 0pt      %    Width of rule between columns.
+\hfuzz 1pt              % Allow some variation in column width, otherwise it's
+                        % too hard to typeset in narrow columns.
+
+\footnotesep 5.6pt      % Height of strut placed at the beginning of every
+                        % footnote =3D height of normal \footnotesize strut,
+                        % so no extra space between footnotes.
+
+\skip\footins 8.1pt plus 4pt minus 2pt  % Space between last line of text and
+                                        % top of first footnote.
+\floatsep 11pt plus 2pt minus 2pt       % Space between adjacent floats moved
+                                        % to top or bottom of text page.
+\textfloatsep 18pt plus 2pt minus 4pt   % Space between main text and floats
+                                        % at top or bottom of page.
+\intextsep 11pt plus 2pt minus 2pt      % Space between in-text figures and
+                                        % text.
+\@ifundefined{@maxsep}{\newdimen\@maxsep}{}% this is for LaTeX2e
+\@maxsep 18pt                           % The maximum of \floatsep,
+                                        % \textfloatsep and \intextsep (minus
+                                        % the stretch and shrink).
+\dblfloatsep 11pt plus 2pt minus 2pt    % Same as \floatsep for double-column
+                                        % figures in two-column mode.
+\dbltextfloatsep 18pt plus 2pt minus 4pt% \textfloatsep for double-column
+                                        % floats.
+\@ifundefined{@dblmaxsep}{\newdimen\@dblmaxsep}{}% this is for LaTeX2e
+\@dblmaxsep 18pt                        % The maximum of \dblfloatsep and
+                                        % \dbltexfloatsep.
+\@fptop 0pt plus 1fil    % Stretch at top of float page/column. (Must be
+                         % 0pt plus ...)
+\@fpsep 8pt plus 2fil    % Space between floats on float page/column.
+\@fpbot 0pt plus 1fil    % Stretch at bottom of float page/column. (Must be
+                         % 0pt plus ... )
+\@dblfptop 0pt plus 1fil % Stretch at top of float page. (Must be 0pt plus ...)
+\@dblfpsep 8pt plus 2fil % Space between floats on float page.
+\@dblfpbot 0pt plus 1fil % Stretch at bottom of float page. (Must be
+                         % 0pt plus ... )
+\marginparpush 5pt       % Minimum vertical separation between two marginal
+                         % notes.
+
+\parskip 0pt plus 1pt            % Extra vertical space between paragraphs.
+\parindent 9pt  % GM July 2000 / was 0pt - width of paragraph indentation.
+\partopsep 2pt plus 1pt minus 1pt% Extra vertical space, in addition to
+                                 % \parskip and \topsep, added when user
+                                 % leaves blank line before environment.
+
+\@lowpenalty   51       % Produced by \nopagebreak[1] or \nolinebreak[1]
+\@medpenalty  151       % Produced by \nopagebreak[2] or \nolinebreak[2]
+\@highpenalty 301       % Produced by \nopagebreak[3] or \nolinebreak[3]
+
+\@beginparpenalty -\@lowpenalty % Before a list or paragraph environment.
+\@endparpenalty   -\@lowpenalty % After a list or paragraph environment.
+\@itempenalty     -\@lowpenalty % Between list items.
+
+\@namedef{ds@10pt}{\@latexerr{The `10pt' option is not allowed in the `acmconf'
+  document style.}\@eha}
+\@namedef{ds@11pt}{\@latexerr{The `11pt' option is not allowed in the `acmconf'
+  document style.}\@eha}
+\@namedef{ds@12pt}{\@latexerr{The `12pt' option is not allowed in the `acmconf'
+  document style.}\@eha}
+
+\@options
+
+\lineskip 2pt           % \lineskip is 1pt for all font sizes.
+\normallineskip 2pt
+\def\baselinestretch{1}
+
+\abovedisplayskip 9pt plus2pt minus4.5pt%
+\belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
+\abovedisplayshortskip  \z@ plus3pt%
+\belowdisplayshortskip  5.4pt plus3pt minus3pt%
+\let\@listi\@listI     % Setting of \@listi added 9 Jun 87
+
+\def\small{\@setsize\small{9pt}\viiipt\@viiipt
+\abovedisplayskip 7.6pt plus 3pt minus 4pt%
+\belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
+\abovedisplayshortskip \z@ plus2pt%
+\belowdisplayshortskip 3.6pt plus2pt minus 2pt
+\def\@listi{\leftmargin\leftmargini %% Added 22 Dec 87
+\topsep 4pt plus 2pt minus 2pt\parsep 2pt plus 1pt minus 1pt
+\itemsep \parsep}}
+
+\def\footnotesize{\@setsize\footnotesize{9pt}\ixpt\@ixpt
+\abovedisplayskip 6.4pt plus 2pt minus 4pt%
+\belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
+\abovedisplayshortskip \z@ plus 1pt%
+\belowdisplayshortskip 2.7pt plus 1pt minus 2pt
+\def\@listi{\leftmargin\leftmargini %% Added 22 Dec 87
+\topsep 3pt plus 1pt minus 1pt\parsep 2pt plus 1pt minus 1pt
+\itemsep \parsep}}
+
+\newcount\aucount
+\newcount\originalaucount
+\newdimen\auwidth
+\auwidth=\textwidth
+\newdimen\auskip
+\newcount\auskipcount
+\newdimen\auskip
+\global\auskip=1pc
+\newdimen\allauboxes
+\allauboxes=\auwidth
+\newtoks\addauthors
+\newcount\addauflag
+\global\addauflag=0 %Haven't shown additional authors yet
+
+\newtoks\subtitletext
+\gdef\subtitle#1{\subtitletext={#1}}
+
+\gdef\additionalauthors#1{\addauthors={#1}}
+
+\gdef\numberofauthors#1{\global\aucount=#1
+\ifnum\aucount>3\global\originalaucount=\aucount \global\aucount=3\fi %g}
+\global\auskipcount=\aucount\global\advance\auskipcount by 1
+\global\multiply\auskipcount by 2
+\global\multiply\auskip by \auskipcount
+\global\advance\auwidth by -\auskip
+\global\divide\auwidth by \aucount}
+
+% \and was modified to count the number of authors.  GKMT 12 Aug 1999
+\def\alignauthor{%                  % \begin{tabular}
+\end{tabular}%
+  \begin{tabular}[t]{p{\auwidth}}\centering}%
+
+%  *** NOTE *** NOTE *** NOTE *** NOTE ***
+%  If you have 'font problems' then you may need
+%  to change these, e.g. 'arialb' instead of "arialbd".
+%  Gerry Murray 11/11/1999
+%  *** OR ** comment out block A and activate block B or vice versa.
+% **********************************************
+%
+%  -- Start of block A -- (Type 1 or Truetype fonts)
+%\newfont{\secfnt}{timesbd at 12pt} % was timenrb originally - now is timesbd
+%\newfont{\secit}{timesbi at 12pt}   %13 Jan 00 gkmt
+%\newfont{\subsecfnt}{timesi at 11pt} % was timenrri originally - now is timesi
+%\newfont{\subsecit}{timesbi at 11pt} % 13 Jan 00 gkmt -- was times changed to timesbi gm 2/4/2000
+%                         % because "normal" is italic, "italic" is Roman
+%\newfont{\ttlfnt}{arialbd at 18pt} % was arialb originally - now is arialbd
+%\newfont{\ttlit}{arialbi at 18pt}    % 13 Jan 00 gkmt
+%\newfont{\subttlfnt}{arial at 14pt} % was arialr originally - now is arial
+%\newfont{\subttlit}{ariali at 14pt} % 13 Jan 00 gkmt
+%\newfont{\subttlbf}{arialbd at 14pt}  % 13 Jan 00 gkmt
+%\newfont{\aufnt}{arial at 12pt} % was arialr originally - now is arial
+%\newfont{\auit}{ariali at 12pt} % 13 Jan 00 gkmt
+%\newfont{\affaddr}{arial at 10pt} % was arialr originally - now is arial
+%\newfont{\affaddrit}{ariali at 10pt} %13 Jan 00 gkmt
+%\newfont{\eaddfnt}{arial at 12pt} % was arialr originally - now is arial
+%\newfont{\ixpt}{times at 9pt} % was timenrr originally - now is times
+%\newfont{\confname}{timesi at 8pt} % was timenrri - now is timesi
+%\newfont{\crnotice}{times at 8pt} % was timenrr originally - now is times
+%\newfont{\ninept}{times at 9pt} % was timenrr originally - now is times
+
+% *********************************************
+%  -- End of block A --
+%
+%
+% -- Start of block B -- METAFONT
+% +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+% Next (default) block for those using Metafont
+% Gerry Murray 11/11/1999
+% *** THIS BLOCK FOR THOSE USING METAFONT *****
+% *********************************************
+\newfont{\secfnt}{ptmb at 12pt}
+\newfont{\secit}{ptmbi at 12pt}    %13 Jan 00 gkmt
+\newfont{\subsecfnt}{ptmri at 11pt}
+\newfont{\subsecit}{ptmbi at 11pt}  % 13 Jan 00 gkmt -- was ptmr changed to ptmbi gm 2/4/2000
+                         % because "normal" is italic, "italic" is Roman
+\newfont{\ttlfnt}{phvb at 18pt}
+\newfont{\ttlit}{phvbo at 18pt}    % GM 2/4/2000
+\newfont{\subttlfnt}{phvr at 14pt}
+\newfont{\subttlit}{phvro at 14pt} % GM 2/4/2000
+\newfont{\subttlbf}{phvb at 14pt}  % 13 Jan 00 gkmt
+\newfont{\aufnt}{phvr at 12pt}
+\newfont{\auit}{phvro at 12pt}     % GM 2/4/2000
+\newfont{\affaddr}{phvr at 10pt}
+\newfont{\affaddrit}{phvro at 10pt} % GM 2/4/2000
+\newfont{\eaddfnt}{phvr at 12pt}
+\newfont{\ixpt}{ptmr at 9pt}
+\newfont{\confname}{ptmri at 8pt}
+\newfont{\crnotice}{ptmr at 8pt}
+\newfont{\ninept}{ptmr at 9pt}
+% +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+% -- End of block B --
+
+
+\def\email#1{{{\eaddfnt{\vskip 4pt#1}}}}
+
+\def\addauthorsection{\ifnum\originalaucount>3
+    \section{Additional Authors}\the\addauthors
+  \fi}
+
+\newcount\savesection
+\newcount\sectioncntr
+\global\sectioncntr=1
+
+\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
+
+\def\appendix{\par
+\section*{APPENDIX}
+\setcounter{section}{0}
+ \setcounter{subsection}{0}
+ \def\thesection{\Alph{section}} }
+
+\leftmargini 22.5pt
+\leftmarginii 19.8pt    % > \labelsep + width of '(m)'
+\leftmarginiii 16.8pt   % > \labelsep + width of 'vii.'
+\leftmarginiv 15.3pt    % > \labelsep + width of 'M.'
+\leftmarginv 9pt
+\leftmarginvi 9pt
+
+\leftmargin\leftmargini
+\labelsep 4.5pt
+\labelwidth\leftmargini\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
+
+\def\@listI{\leftmargin\leftmargini \parsep 3.6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt%
+\topsep 7.2pt plus 2pt minus 4pt%
+\itemsep 3.6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt}
+
+\let\@listi\@listI
+\@listi
+
+\def\@listii{\leftmargin\leftmarginii
+   \labelwidth\leftmarginii\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
+   \topsep 3.6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
+   \parsep 1.8pt plus 0.9pt minus 0.9pt
+   \itemsep \parsep}
+
+\def\@listiii{\leftmargin\leftmarginiii
+    \labelwidth\leftmarginiii\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
+    \topsep 1.8pt plus 0.9pt minus 0.9pt
+    \parsep \z@ \partopsep 1pt plus 0pt minus 1pt
+    \itemsep \topsep}
+
+\def\@listiv{\leftmargin\leftmarginiv
+     \labelwidth\leftmarginiv\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep}
+
+\def\@listv{\leftmargin\leftmarginv
+     \labelwidth\leftmarginv\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep}
+
+\def\@listvi{\leftmargin\leftmarginvi
+     \labelwidth\leftmarginvi\advance\labelwidth-\labelsep}
+
+\def\labelenumi{\theenumi.}
+\def\theenumi{\arabic{enumi}}
+
+\def\labelenumii{(\theenumii)}
+\def\theenumii{\alph{enumii}}
+\def\p@enumii{\theenumi}
+
+\def\labelenumiii{\theenumiii.}
+\def\theenumiii{\roman{enumiii}}
+\def\p@enumiii{\theenumi(\theenumii)}
+
+\def\labelenumiv{\theenumiv.}
+\def\theenumiv{\Alph{enumiv}}
+\def\p@enumiv{\p@enumiii\theenumiii}
+
+\def\labelitemi{$\bullet$}
+\def\labelitemii{\bf --}
+\def\labelitemiii{$\ast$}
+\def\labelitemiv{$\cdot$}
+
+\def\verse{\let\\=\@centercr
+  \list{}{\itemsep\z@ \itemindent -1.5em\listparindent \itemindent
+          \rightmargin\leftmargin\advance\leftmargin 1.5em}\item[]}
+\let\endverse\endlist
+
+\def\quotation{\list{}{\listparindent 1.5em
+    \itemindent\listparindent
+    \rightmargin\leftmargin \parsep 0pt plus 1pt}\item[]}
+\let\endquotation=\endlist
+
+\def\quote{\list{}{\rightmargin\leftmargin}\item[]}
+\let\endquote=\endlist
+
+\def\descriptionlabel#1{\hspace\labelsep \bf #1}
+\def\description{\list{}{\labelwidth\z@ \itemindent-\leftmargin
+       \let\makelabel\descriptionlabel}}
+
+\let\enddescription\endlist
+
+\def\theequation{\arabic{equation}}
+
+\arraycolsep 4.5pt   % Half the space between columns in an array environment.
+\tabcolsep 5.4pt    % Half the space between columns in a tabular environment.
+\arrayrulewidth .4pt % Width of rules in array and tabular environment.
+\doublerulesep 1.8pt % Space between adjacent rules in array or tabular env.
+
+\tabbingsep \labelsep   % Space used by the \' command.  (See LaTeX manual.)
+
+\skip\@mpfootins =\skip\footins
+
+\fboxsep =2.7pt      % Space left between box and text by \fbox and \framebox.
+\fboxrule =.4pt      % Width of rules in box made by \fbox and \framebox.
+
+\def\thepart{\Roman{part}} % Roman numeral part numbers.
+\def\thesection       {\arabic{section}}
+\def\thesubsection    {\thesection.\arabic{subsection}}
+%\def\thesubsubsection {\thesubsection.\arabic{subsubsection}} % GM 7/30/2002
+%\def\theparagraph     {\thesubsubsection.\arabic{paragraph}}  % GM 7/30/2002
+\def\thesubparagraph  {\theparagraph.\arabic{subparagraph}}
+
+\def\@pnumwidth{1.55em}
+\def\@tocrmarg {2.55em}
+\def\@dotsep{4.5}
+\setcounter{tocdepth}{3}
+
+\def\tableofcontents{\@latexerr{\tableofcontents: Tables of contents are not
+  allowed in the `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
+
+\def\l@part#1#2{\addpenalty{\@secpenalty}
+   \addvspace{2.25em plus 1pt}  % space above part line
+   \begingroup
+   \@tempdima 3em       % width of box holding part number, used by
+     \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@pnumwidth      %% \numberline
+     \parfillskip -\@pnumwidth
+     {\large \bf        % set line in \large boldface
+     \leavevmode        % TeX command to enter horizontal mode.
+     #1\hfil \hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}}\par
+     \nobreak           % Never break after part entry
+   \endgroup}
+
+\def\l@section#1#2{\addpenalty{\@secpenalty} % good place for page break
+   \addvspace{1.0em plus 1pt}   % space above toc entry
+   \@tempdima 1.5em             % width of box holding section number
+   \begingroup
+    \parindent  \z@ \rightskip \@pnumwidth
+     \parfillskip -\@pnumwidth
+     \bf                        % Boldface.
+     \leavevmode                % TeX command to enter horizontal mode.
+      \advance\leftskip\@tempdima %% added 5 Feb 88 to conform to
+      \hskip -\leftskip           %% 25 Jan 88 change to \numberline
+     #1\nobreak\hfil \nobreak\hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}\par
+   \endgroup}
+
+
+\def\l@subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
+\def\l@subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{3.8em}{3.2em}}
+\def\l@paragraph{\@dottedtocline{4}{7.0em}{4.1em}}
+\def\l@subparagraph{\@dottedtocline{5}{10em}{5em}}
+
+\def\listoffigures{\@latexerr{\listoffigures: Lists of figures are not
+  allowed in the `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
+
+\def\l@figure{\@dottedtocline{1}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
+
+\def\listoftables{\@latexerr{\listoftables: Lists of tables are not
+  allowed in the `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
+\let\l@table\l@figure
+
+\def\footnoterule{\kern-3\p@
+  \hrule width .4\columnwidth
+  \kern 2.6\p@}                 % The \hrule has default height of .4pt .
+% ------
+\long\def\@makefntext#1{\noindent
+%\hbox to .5em{\hss$^{\@thefnmark}$}#1}   % original
+\hbox to .5em{\hss\textsuperscript{\@thefnmark}}#1}  % C. Clifton / GM Oct. 2nd. 2002
+% -------
+
+\long\def\@maketntext#1{\noindent
+#1}
+
+\long\def\@maketitlenotetext#1#2{\noindent
+            \hbox to 1.8em{\hss$^{#1}$}#2}
+
+\setcounter{topnumber}{2}
+\def\topfraction{.7}
+\setcounter{bottomnumber}{1}
+\def\bottomfraction{.3}
+\setcounter{totalnumber}{3}
+\def\textfraction{.2}
+\def\floatpagefraction{.5}
+\setcounter{dbltopnumber}{2}
+\def\dbltopfraction{.7}
+\def\dblfloatpagefraction{.5}
+
+%
+\long\def\@makecaption#1#2{
+   \vskip \baselineskip
+   \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{\textbf{#1: #2}}
+   \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize % IF longer than one line:
+       \textbf{#1: #2}\par               %   THEN set as ordinary paragraph.
+     \else                      %   ELSE  center.
+       \hbox to\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}\par
+   \fi}
+
+%
+
+\long\def\@makecaption#1#2{
+   \vskip 10pt
+   \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{\textbf{#1: #2}}
+   \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize % IF longer than one line:
+       \textbf{#1: #2}\par                %   THEN set as ordinary paragraph.
+     \else                      %   ELSE  center.
+       \hbox to\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}
+   \fi}
+
+\@ifundefined{figure}{\newcounter {figure}} % this is for LaTeX2e
+
+\def\fps@figure{tbp}
+\def\ftype@figure{1}
+\def\ext@figure{lof}
+\def\fnum@figure{Figure \thefigure}
+\def\figure{\@float{figure}}
+\let\endfigure\end@float
+\@namedef{figure*}{\@dblfloat{figure}}
+\@namedef{endfigure*}{\end@dblfloat}
+
+\@ifundefined{table}{\newcounter {table}} % this is for LaTeX2e
+
+\def\fps@table{tbp}
+\def\ftype@table{2}
+\def\ext@table{lot}
+\def\fnum@table{Table \thetable}
+\def\table{\@float{table}}
+\let\endtable\end@float
+\@namedef{table*}{\@dblfloat{table}}
+\@namedef{endtable*}{\end@dblfloat}
+
+\newtoks\titleboxnotes
+\newcount\titleboxnoteflag
+
+\def\maketitle{\par
+ \begingroup
+   \def\thefootnote{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
+   \def\@makefnmark{\hbox
+       to 0pt{$^{\@thefnmark}$\hss}}
+     \twocolumn[\@maketitle]
+\@thanks
+ \endgroup
+ \setcounter{footnote}{0}
+ \let\maketitle\relax
+ \let\@maketitle\relax
+ \gdef\@thanks{}\gdef\@author{}\gdef\@title{}\gdef\@subtitle{}\let\thanks\relax
+ \@copyrightspace}
+
+%% CHANGES ON NEXT LINES
+\newif\if@ll % to record which version of LaTeX is in use
+
+\expandafter\ifx\csname LaTeXe\endcsname\relax % LaTeX2.09 is used
+\else% LaTeX2e is used, so set ll to true
+\global\@lltrue
+\fi
+
+\if@ll
+  \NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}
+  \ProvidesClass{sig-alternate} [2002/02/10 - V1.6 - based on acmproc.cls V1.3 <Nov. 30 '99>]
+  \RequirePackage{latexsym}% QUERY: are these two really needed?
+  \let\dooptions\ProcessOptions
+\else
+  \let\dooptions\@options
+\fi
+%% END CHANGES
+
+\def\@height{height}
+\def\@width{width}
+\def\@minus{minus}
+\def\@plus{plus}
+\def\hb@xt@{\hbox to}
+\newif\if@faircopy
+\@faircopyfalse
+\def\ds@faircopy{\@faircopytrue}
+
+\def\ds@preprint{\@faircopyfalse}
+
+\@twosidetrue
+\@mparswitchtrue
+\def\ds@draft{\overfullrule 5\p@}
+%% CHANGE ON NEXT LINE
+\dooptions
+
+\lineskip \p@
+\normallineskip \p@
+\def\baselinestretch{1}
+\def\@ptsize{0} %needed for amssymbols.sty
+
+%% CHANGES ON NEXT LINES
+\if@ll% allow use of old-style font change commands in LaTeX2e
+\@maxdepth\maxdepth
+%
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\rm}{\ninept\rmfamily}{\mathrm}
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sf}{\normalfont\sffamily}{\mathsf}
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\tt}{\normalfont\ttfamily}{\mathtt}
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\bf}{\normalfont\bfseries}{\mathbf}
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\it}{\normalfont\itshape}{\mathit}
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sl}{\normalfont\slshape}{\@nomath\sl}
+\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sc}{\normalfont\scshape}{\@nomath\sc}
+\DeclareRobustCommand*{\cal}{\@fontswitch{\relax}{\mathcal}}
+\DeclareRobustCommand*{\mit}{\@fontswitch{\relax}{\mathnormal}}
+\fi
+%
+\if@ll
+ \renewcommand{\rmdefault}{cmr}  % was 'ttm'
+% Note! I have also found 'mvr' to work ESPECIALLY well.
+% Gerry - October 1999
+% You may need to change your LV1times.fd file so that sc is
+% mapped to cmcsc - -for smallcaps -- that is if you decide
+% to change {cmr} to {times} above. (Not recommended)
+  \renewcommand{\@ptsize}{}
+  \renewcommand{\normalsize}{%
+    \@setfontsize\normalsize\@ixpt{10.5\p@}%\ninept%
+    \abovedisplayskip 6\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus\p@
+    \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
+    \abovedisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
+    \belowdisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
+    \let\@listi\@listI
+  }
+\else
+  \def\@normalsize{%changed next to 9 from 10
+    \@setsize\normalsize{9\p@}\ixpt\@ixpt
+   \abovedisplayskip 6\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus\p@
+    \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
+    \abovedisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
+    \belowdisplayshortskip 6\p@ \@minus 3\p@
+    \let\@listi\@listI
+  }%
+\fi
+\if@ll
+  \newcommand\scriptsize{\@setfontsize\scriptsize\@viipt{8\p@}}
+  \newcommand\tiny{\@setfontsize\tiny\@vpt{6\p@}}
+  \newcommand\large{\@setfontsize\large\@xiipt{14\p@}}
+  \newcommand\Large{\@setfontsize\Large\@xivpt{18\p@}}
+  \newcommand\LARGE{\@setfontsize\LARGE\@xviipt{20\p@}}
+  \newcommand\huge{\@setfontsize\huge\@xxpt{25\p@}}
+  \newcommand\Huge{\@setfontsize\Huge\@xxvpt{30\p@}}
+\else
+  \def\scriptsize{\@setsize\scriptsize{8\p@}\viipt\@viipt}
+  \def\tiny{\@setsize\tiny{6\p@}\vpt\@vpt}
+  \def\large{\@setsize\large{14\p@}\xiipt\@xiipt}
+  \def\Large{\@setsize\Large{18\p@}\xivpt\@xivpt}
+  \def\LARGE{\@setsize\LARGE{20\p@}\xviipt\@xviipt}
+  \def\huge{\@setsize\huge{25\p@}\xxpt\@xxpt}
+  \def\Huge{\@setsize\Huge{30\p@}\xxvpt\@xxvpt}
+\fi
+\normalsize
+
+% make aubox hsize/number of authors up to 3, less gutter
+% then showbox gutter showbox gutter showbox -- GKMT Aug 99
+\newbox\@acmtitlebox
+\def\@maketitle{\newpage
+ \null
+ \setbox\@acmtitlebox\vbox{%
+\baselineskip 20pt
+\vskip 2em                   % Vertical space above title.
+   \begin{center}
+    {\ttlfnt \@title\par}       % Title set in 18pt Helvetica (Arial) bold size.
+    \vskip 1.5em                % Vertical space after title.
+%This should be the subtitle.
+{\subttlfnt \the\subtitletext\par}\vskip 1.25em%\fi
+    {\baselineskip 16pt\aufnt   % each author set in \12 pt Arial, in a
+     \lineskip .5em             % tabular environment
+     \begin{tabular}[t]{c}\@author
+     \end{tabular}\par}
+    \vskip 1.5em               % Vertical space after author.
+   \end{center}}
+ \dimen0=\ht\@acmtitlebox
+ \advance\dimen0 by -12.75pc\relax % Increased space for title box -- KBT
+ \unvbox\@acmtitlebox
+ \ifdim\dimen0<0.0pt\relax\vskip-\dimen0\fi}
+
+
+\newcount\titlenotecount
+\global\titlenotecount=0
+\newtoks\tntoks
+\newtoks\tntokstwo
+\newtoks\tntoksthree
+\newtoks\tntoksfour
+\newtoks\tntoksfive
+
+\def\abstract{
+\ifnum\titlenotecount>0 % was =1
+    \insert\footins{%
+    \reset@font\footnotesize
+        \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
+        \splittopskip\footnotesep
+        \splitmaxdepth \dp\strutbox \floatingpenalty \@MM
+        \hsize\columnwidth \@parboxrestore
+        \protected@edef\@currentlabel{%
+        }%
+        \color@begingroup
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=1
+      \@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=2
+      \@maketntext{%
+      \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=3
+      \@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ddagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksthree\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=4
+      \@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ddagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksthree\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\S$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksfour\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=5
+      \@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ast$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoks\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\dagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntokstwo\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\ddagger$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksthree\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\S$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksfour\par\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\@maketntext{%
+         \raisebox{4pt}{$\P$}\rule\z@\footnotesep\ignorespaces\the\tntoksfive\@finalstrut\strutbox}%
+\fi
+   \color@endgroup} %g}
+\fi
+\setcounter{footnote}{0}
+\section*{ABSTRACT}\normalsize%\ninept
+}
+
+\def\endabstract{\if@twocolumn\else\endquotation\fi}
+
+\def\keywords{\if@twocolumn
+\section*{Keywords}
+\else \small
+\quotation
+\fi}
+
+\def\terms{\if@twocolumn
+\section*{General Terms}
+\else \small
+\quotation
+\fi}
+
+% -- Classification needs to be a bit smart due to optionals - Gerry/Georgia November 2nd. 1999
+\newcount\catcount
+\global\catcount=1
+
+\def\category#1#2#3{%
+\ifnum\catcount=1
+\section*{Categories and Subject Descriptors}
+\advance\catcount by 1\else{\unskip; }\fi
+    \@ifnextchar [{\@category{#1}{#2}{#3}}{\@category{#1}{#2}{#3}[]}%
+}
+
+\def\@category#1#2#3[#4]{%
+    \begingroup
+        \let\and\relax
+            #1 [\textbf{#2}]%
+            \if!#4!%
+                \if!#3!\else : #3\fi
+            \else
+                :\space
+                \if!#3!\else #3\kern\z@---\hskip\z@\fi
+                \textit{#4}%
+            \fi
+    \endgroup
+}
+%
+
+%%% This section (written by KBT) handles the 1" box in the lower left
+%%% corner of the left column of the first page by creating a picture,
+%%% and inserting the predefined string at the bottom (with a negative
+%%% displacement to offset the space allocated for a non-existent
+%%% caption).
+%%%
+\newtoks\copyrightnotice
+\def\ftype@copyrightbox{8}
+\def\@copyrightspace{
+\@float{copyrightbox}[b]
+\begin{center}
+\setlength{\unitlength}{1pc}
+\begin{picture}(20,6) %Space for copyright notice
+\put(0,-0.95){\crnotice{\@toappear}}
+\end{picture}
+\end{center}
+\end@float}
+
+\def\@toappear{} % Default setting blank - commands below change this.
+\long\def\toappear#1{\def\@toappear{\parbox[b]{20pc}{\baselineskip 9pt#1}}}
+\def\toappearbox#1{\def\@toappear{\raisebox{5pt}{\framebox[20pc]{\parbox[b]{19pc}{#1}}}}}
+
+\newtoks\conf
+\newtoks\confinfo
+\def\conferenceinfo#1#2{\global\conf={#1}\global\confinfo{#2}}
+
+
+\def\marginpar{\@latexerr{The \marginpar command is not allowed in the
+  `acmconf' document style.}\@eha}
+
+\mark{{}{}}     % Initializes TeX's marks
+
+\def\today{\ifcase\month\or
+  January\or February\or March\or April\or May\or June\or
+  July\or August\or September\or October\or November\or December\fi
+  \space\number\day, \number\year}
+
+\def\@begintheorem#1#2{%
+    \parskip 0pt % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
+    \trivlist
+    \item[%
+        \hskip 10\p@
+        \hskip \labelsep
+        {{\sc #1}\hskip 5\p@\relax#2.}%
+    ]
+    \it
+}
+\def\@opargbegintheorem#1#2#3{%
+    \parskip 0pt % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
+    \trivlist
+    \item[%
+        \hskip 10\p@
+        \hskip \labelsep
+        {\sc #1\ #2\             % This mod by Gerry to enumerate corollaries
+   \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{(#3)}  % and bracket the 'corollary title'
+        \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa>\z@ % and retain the correct numbering of e.g. theorems
+            \hskip 5\p@\relax    % if they occur 'around' said corollaries.
+            \box\@tempboxa       % Gerry - Nov. 1999.
+        \fi.}%
+    ]
+    \it
+}
+\newif\if@qeded
+\global\@qededfalse
+
+% -- original
+%\def\proof{%
+%  \vspace{-\parskip} % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
+%    \global\@qededfalse
+%    \@ifnextchar[{\@xproof}{\@proof}%
+%}
+% -- end of original
+
+% (JSS) Fix for vertical spacing bug - Gerry Murray July 30th. 2002
+\def\proof{%
+\vspace{-\lastskip}\vspace{-\parsep}\penalty-51%
+\global\@qededfalse
+\@ifnextchar[{\@xproof}{\@proof}%
+}
+
+\def\endproof{%
+    \if@qeded\else\qed\fi
+    \endtrivlist
+}
+\def\@proof{%
+    \trivlist
+    \item[%
+        \hskip 10\p@
+        \hskip \labelsep
+        {\sc Proof.}%
+    ]
+    \ignorespaces
+}
+\def\@xproof[#1]{%
+    \trivlist
+    \item[\hskip 10\p@\hskip \labelsep{\sc Proof #1.}]%
+    \ignorespaces
+}
+\def\qed{%
+    \unskip
+    \kern 10\p@
+    \begingroup
+        \unitlength\p@
+        \linethickness{.4\p@}%
+        \framebox(6,6){}%
+    \endgroup
+    \global\@qededtrue
+}
+
+\def\newdef#1#2{%
+    \expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+        {\@definecounter{#1}%
+         \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\@thmcounter{#1}}%
+         \global\@namedef{#1}{\@defthm{#1}{#2}}%
+         \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}%
+    }%
+}
+\def\@defthm#1#2{%
+    \refstepcounter{#1}%
+    \@ifnextchar[{\@ydefthm{#1}{#2}}{\@xdefthm{#1}{#2}}%
+}
+\def\@xdefthm#1#2{%
+    \@begindef{#2}{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
+    \ignorespaces
+}
+\def\@ydefthm#1#2[#3]{%
+    \trivlist
+    \item[%
+        \hskip 10\p@
+        \hskip \labelsep
+        {\it #2%
+         \savebox\@tempboxa{#3}%
+         \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa>\z@
+            \ \box\@tempboxa
+         \fi.%
+        }]%
+    \ignorespaces
+}
+\def\@begindef#1#2{%
+    \trivlist
+    \item[%
+        \hskip 10\p@
+        \hskip \labelsep
+        {\it #1\ \rm #2.}%
+    ]%
+}
+\def\theequation{\arabic{equation}}
+
+\newcounter{part}
+\newcounter{section}
+\newcounter{subsection}[section]
+\newcounter{subsubsection}[subsection]
+\newcounter{paragraph}[subsubsection]
+\def\thepart{\Roman{part}}
+\def\thesection{\arabic{section}}
+\def\thesubsection{\thesection.\arabic{subsection}}
+\def\thesubsubsection{\thesubsection.\arabic{subsubsection}} %removed \subsecfnt 29 July 2002 gkmt
+\def\theparagraph{\thesubsubsection.\arabic{paragraph}} %removed \subsecfnt 29 July 2002 gkmt
+\newif\if@uchead
+\@ucheadfalse
+
+%% CHANGES: NEW NOTE
+%% NOTE: OK to use old-style font commands below, since they were
+%% suitably redefined for LaTeX2e
+%% END CHANGES
+\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
+\def\part{%
+    \@startsection{part}{9}{\z@}{-10\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -2\p@}
+        {4\p@}{\normalsize\@ucheadtrue}%
+}
+\def\section{%
+    \@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}{-10\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -2\p@}% GM
+    {4\p@}{\baselineskip 14pt\secfnt\@ucheadtrue}%
+}
+
+\def\subsection{%
+    \@startsection{subsection}{2}{\z@}{-8\p@ \@plus -2\p@ \@minus -\p@}
+    {4\p@}{\secfnt}%
+}
+\def\subsubsection{%
+    \@startsection{subsubsection}{3}{\z@}{-8\p@ \@plus -2\p@ \@minus -\p@}%
+    {4\p@}{\subsecfnt}%
+}
+\def\paragraph{%
+    \vskip 12pt\@startsection{paragraph}{3}{\z@}{6\p@ \@plus \p@}%
+    {-5\p@}{\subsecfnt}%
+}
+\let\@period=.
+\def\@startsection#1#2#3#4#5#6{%
+        \if@noskipsec  %gkmt, 11 aug 99
+        \global\let\@period\@empty
+        \leavevmode
+        \global\let\@period.%
+    \fi
+      \par %
+    \@tempskipa #4\relax
+    \@afterindenttrue
+    \ifdim \@tempskipa <\z@
+        \@tempskipa -\@tempskipa
+        \@afterindentfalse
+    \fi
+    \if@nobreak
+    \everypar{}%
+    \else
+        \addpenalty\@secpenalty
+        \addvspace\@tempskipa
+    \fi
+\parskip=0pt % GM July 2000 (non numbered) section heads
+    \@ifstar
+        {\@ssect{#3}{#4}{#5}{#6}}
+        {\@dblarg{\@sect{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}{#5}{#6}}}%
+}
+\def\@sect#1#2#3#4#5#6[#7]#8{%
+    \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth
+        \let\@svsec\@empty
+    \else
+        \refstepcounter{#1}%
+        \edef\@svsec{%
+            \begingroup
+                %\ifnum#2>2 \noexpand\rm \fi % changed to next 29 July 2002 gkmt
+			\ifnum#2>2 \noexpand#6 \fi
+                \csname the#1\endcsname
+            \endgroup
+            \ifnum #2=1\relax .\fi
+            \hskip 1em
+        }%
+    \fi
+    \@tempskipa #5\relax
+    \ifdim \@tempskipa>\z@
+        \begingroup
+            #6\relax
+            \@hangfrom{\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
+            \begingroup
+                \interlinepenalty \@M
+                \if@uchead
+                    \uppercase{#8}%
+                \else
+                    #8%
+                \fi
+                \par
+            \endgroup
+        \endgroup
+        \csname #1mark\endcsname{#7}%
+        \vskip -12pt  %gkmt, 11 aug 99 and GM July 2000 (was -14) - numbered section head spacing
+\addcontentsline{toc}{#1}{%
+            \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth \else
+                \protect\numberline{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
+            \fi
+            #7%
+        }%
+    \else
+        \def\@svsechd{%
+            #6%
+            \hskip #3\relax
+            \@svsec
+            \if@uchead
+                \uppercase{#8}%
+            \else
+                #8%
+            \fi
+            \csname #1mark\endcsname{#7}%
+            \addcontentsline{toc}{#1}{%
+                \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth \else
+                    \protect\numberline{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
+                \fi
+                #7%
+            }%
+        }%
+    \fi
+    \@xsect{#5}\hskip 1pt
+    \par
+}
+\def\@xsect#1{%
+    \@tempskipa #1\relax
+    \ifdim \@tempskipa>\z@
+        \par
+        \nobreak
+        \vskip \@tempskipa
+        \@afterheading
+    \else
+        \global\@nobreakfalse
+        \global\@noskipsectrue
+        \everypar{%
+            \if@noskipsec
+                \global\@noskipsecfalse
+                \clubpenalty\@M
+                \hskip -\parindent
+                \begingroup
+                    \@svsechd
+                    \@period
+                \endgroup
+                \unskip
+                \@tempskipa #1\relax
+                \hskip -\@tempskipa
+            \else
+                \clubpenalty \@clubpenalty
+                \everypar{}%
+            \fi
+        }%
+    \fi
+    \ignorespaces
+}
+\def\@trivlist{%
+    \@topsepadd\topsep
+    \if@noskipsec
+        \global\let\@period\@empty
+        \leavevmode
+        \global\let\@period.%
+    \fi
+    \ifvmode
+        \advance\@topsepadd\partopsep
+    \else
+        \unskip
+        \par
+    \fi
+    \if@inlabel
+        \@noparitemtrue
+        \@noparlisttrue
+    \else
+        \@noparlistfalse
+        \@topsep\@topsepadd
+    \fi
+    \advance\@topsep \parskip
+    \leftskip\z@skip
+    \rightskip\@rightskip
+    \parfillskip\@flushglue
+    \@setpar{\if@newlist\else{\@@par}\fi}
+    \global\@newlisttrue
+    \@outerparskip\parskip
+}
+
+%%% Actually, 'abbrev' works just fine as the default
+%%% Bibliography style.
+
+\typeout{Using 'Abbrev' bibliography style}
+\newcommand\bibyear[2]{%
+    \unskip\quad\ignorespaces#1\unskip
+    \if#2..\quad \else \quad#2 \fi
+}
+\newcommand{\bibemph}[1]{{\em#1}}
+\newcommand{\bibemphic}[1]{{\em#1\/}}
+\newcommand{\bibsc}[1]{{\sc#1}}
+\def\@normalcite{%
+    \def\@cite##1##2{[##1\if@tempswa , ##2\fi]}%
+}
+\def\@citeNB{%
+    \def\@cite##1##2{##1\if@tempswa , ##2\fi}%
+}
+\def\@citeRB{%
+    \def\@cite##1##2{##1\if@tempswa , ##2\fi]}%
+}
+\def\start@cite#1#2{%
+    \edef\citeauthoryear##1##2##3{%
+        ###1%
+        \ifnum#2=\z@ \else\ ###2\fi
+    }%
+    \ifnum#1=\thr@@
+        \let\@@cite\@citeyear
+    \else
+        \let\@@cite\@citenormal
+    \fi
+    \@ifstar{\@citeNB\@@cite}{\@normalcite\@@cite}%
+}
+\def\cite{\start@cite23}
+\def\citeNP{\cite*}
+\def\citeA{\start@cite10}
+\def\citeANP{\citeA*}
+\def\shortcite{\start@cite23}
+\def\shortciteNP{\shortcite*}
+\def\shortciteA{\start@cite20}
+\def\shortciteANP{\shortciteA*}
+\def\citeyear{\start@cite30}
+\def\citeyearNP{\citeyear*}
+\def\citeN{%
+    \@citeRB
+    \def\citeauthoryear##1##2##3{##1\ [##3%
+        \def\reserved@a{##1}%
+        \def\citeauthoryear####1####2####3{%
+            \def\reserved@b{####1}%
+            \ifx\reserved@a\reserved@b
+                ####3%
+            \else
+                \errmessage{Package acmart Error: author mismatch
+                         in \string\citeN^^J^^J%
+                    See the acmart package documentation for explanation}%
+            \fi
+        }%
+    }%
+    \@ifstar\@citeyear\@citeyear
+}
+\def\shortciteN{%
+    \@citeRB
+    \def\citeauthoryear##1##2##3{##2\ [##3%
+        \def\reserved@a{##2}%
+        \def\citeauthoryear####1####2####3{%
+            \def\reserved@b{####2}%
+            \ifx\reserved@a\reserved@b
+                ####3%
+            \else
+                \errmessage{Package acmart Error: author mismatch
+                         in \string\shortciteN^^J^^J%
+                    See the acmart package documentation for explanation}%
+            \fi
+        }%
+    }%
+    \@ifstar\@citeyear\@citeyear  % GM July 2000
+}
+\def\@citenormal{%
+    \@ifnextchar [{\@tempswatrue\@citex;}
+                  {\@tempswafalse\@citex,[]}% % GM July 2000
+}
+\def\@citeyear{%
+    \@ifnextchar [{\@tempswatrue\@citex,}%
+                  {\@tempswafalse\@citex,[]}%
+}
+\def\@citex#1[#2]#3{%
+    \let\@citea\@empty
+    \@cite{%
+        \@for\@citeb:=#3\do{%
+            \@citea
+            \def\@citea{#1 }%
+            \edef\@citeb{\expandafter\@iden\@citeb}%
+            \if@filesw
+                \immediate\write\@auxout{\string\citation{\@citeb}}%
+            \fi
+            \@ifundefined{b@\@citeb}{%
+                {\bf ?}%
+                \@warning{%
+                    Citation `\@citeb' on page \thepage\space undefined%
+                }%
+            }%
+            {\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname}%
+        }%
+    }{#2}%
+}
+\let\@biblabel\@gobble
+\newdimen\bibindent
+\setcounter{enumi}{1}
+\bibindent=0em
+\def\thebibliography#1{%
+\ifnum\addauflag=0\addauthorsection\global\addauflag=1\fi
+    \section{%
+       {REFERENCES}
+         \vskip -9pt  % GM July 2000 (for tighter spacing)
+        \@mkboth{{\refname}}{{\refname}}%
+    }%
+    \list{[\arabic{enumi}]}{%
+        \settowidth\labelwidth{[#1]}%
+        \leftmargin\labelwidth
+        \advance\leftmargin\labelsep
+        \advance\leftmargin\bibindent
+        \parsep=0pt\itemsep=1pt % GM July 2000
+        \itemindent -\bibindent
+        \listparindent \itemindent
+        \usecounter{enumi}
+    }%
+    \let\newblock\@empty
+    \raggedright % GM July 2000
+    \sloppy
+    \sfcode`\.=1000\relax
+}
+
+
+\gdef\balancecolumns
+{\vfill\eject
+\global\@colht=\textheight
+\global\ht\@cclv=\textheight
+}
+
+\newcount\colcntr
+\global\colcntr=0
+\newbox\savebox
+
+\gdef \@makecol {%
+\global\advance\colcntr by 1
+\ifnum\colcntr>2 \global\colcntr=1\fi
+   \ifvoid\footins
+     \setbox\@outputbox \box\@cclv
+   \else
+     \setbox\@outputbox \vbox{%
+\boxmaxdepth \@maxdepth
+       \@tempdima\dp\@cclv
+       \unvbox \@cclv
+       \vskip-\@tempdima
+       \vskip \skip\footins
+       \color@begingroup
+         \normalcolor
+         \footnoterule
+         \unvbox \footins
+       \color@endgroup
+       }%
+   \fi
+   \xdef\@freelist{\@freelist\@midlist}%
+   \global \let \@midlist \@empty
+   \@combinefloats
+   \ifvbox\@kludgeins
+     \@makespecialcolbox
+   \else
+     \setbox\@outputbox \vbox to\@colht {%
+\@texttop
+       \dimen@ \dp\@outputbox
+       \unvbox \@outputbox
+   \vskip -\dimen@
+       \@textbottom
+       }%
+   \fi
+   \global \maxdepth \@maxdepth
+}
+\def\titlenote{\@ifnextchar[\@xtitlenote{\stepcounter\@mpfn
+\global\advance\titlenotecount by 1
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=1
+    \raisebox{9pt}{$\ast$}
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=2
+    \raisebox{9pt}{$\dagger$}
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=3
+    \raisebox{9pt}{$\ddagger$}
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=4
+\raisebox{9pt}{$\S$}
+\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=5
+\raisebox{9pt}{$\P$}
+\fi
+         \@titlenotetext
+}}
+
+\long\def\@titlenotetext#1{\insert\footins{%
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=1\global\tntoks={#1}\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=2\global\tntokstwo={#1}\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=3\global\tntoksthree={#1}\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=4\global\tntoksfour={#1}\fi
+\ifnum\titlenotecount=5\global\tntoksfive={#1}\fi
+    \reset@font\footnotesize
+    \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
+    \splittopskip\footnotesep
+    \splitmaxdepth \dp\strutbox \floatingpenalty \@MM
+    \hsize\columnwidth \@parboxrestore
+    \protected@edef\@currentlabel{%
+    }%
+    \color@begingroup
+   \color@endgroup}}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+\ps@plain
+\baselineskip=11pt
+\let\thepage\relax % For NO page numbers - GM Nov. 30th. 1999 and July 2000
+\def\setpagenumber#1{\global\setcounter{page}{#1}}
+%\pagenumbering{arabic}  % Arabic page numbers GM July 2000
+\twocolumn             % Double column.
+\flushbottom           % Even bottom -- alas, does not balance columns at end of document
+\pagestyle{plain}
+
+% Need Copyright Year and Copyright Data to be user definable (in .tex file).
+% Gerry Nov. 30th. 1999
+\newtoks\copyrtyr
+\newtoks\acmcopyr
+\newtoks\boilerplate
+\global\acmcopyr={X-XXXXX-XX-X/XX/XX}  % Default - 5/11/2001 *** Gerry
+\global\copyrtyr={200X}                % Default - 3/3/2003 *** Gerry
+\def\CopyrightYear#1{\global\copyrtyr{#1}}
+\def\crdata#1{\global\acmcopyr{#1}}
+\def\permission#1{\global\boilerplate{#1}}
+%
+\global\boilerplate={Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.  To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.}
+\newtoks\copyrightetc
+\global\copyrightetc{Copyright \the\copyrtyr\ ACM \the\acmcopyr\ ...\$5.00}
+
+\toappear{\the\boilerplate\par
+{\confname{\the\conf}} \the\confinfo\par \the\copyrightetc.}
+%
+%% End of sig-alternate.cls -- V1.6 - 10/02/2002 --
+%% Gerry Murray -- Wednesday October 2nd. 2002
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